The potential of electrospinning process to fabricate ultrafine fibers as building blocks for tissue engineering scaffolds is well recognized. The scaffold construct produced by electrospinning process depends on the quality of the fibers. In electrospinning, material selection and parameter setting are among many factors that contribute to the quality of the ultrafine fibers, which eventually determine the performance of the tissue engineering scaffolds. The major challenge of conventional electrospun scaffolds is the nature of electrospinning process which can only produce two-dimensional electrospun mats, hence limiting their applications. Researchers have started to focus on overcoming this limitation by combining electrospinning with other techniques to fabricate three-dimensional scaffold constructs. This article reviews various polymeric materials and their composites/blends that have been successfully electrospun for tissue engineering scaffolds, their mechanical properties, and the various parameters settings that influence the fiber morphology. This review also highlights the secondary processes to electrospinning that have been used to develop three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds as well as the steps undertaken to overcome electrospinning limitations.
Cardiovascular biomaterials (CB) dominate the category of biomaterials based on the demand and investments in this field. This review article classifies the CB into three major classes, namely, metals, polymers, and biological materials and collates the information about the CB. Blood compatibility is one of the major criteria which limit the use of biomaterials for cardiovascular application. Several key players are associated with blood compatibility and they are discussed in this paper. To enhance the compatibility of the CB, several surface modification strategies were in use currently. Some recent applications of surface modification technology on the materials for cardiovascular devices were also discussed for better understanding. Finally, the current trend of the CB, endothelization of the cardiac implants and utilization of induced human pluripotent stem cells (ihPSCs), is also presented in this review. The field of CB is growing constantly and many new investigators and researchers are developing interest in this domain. This review will serve as a one stop arrangement to quickly grasp the basic research in the field of CB.
Liver transplantation is the most common treatment for patients with end-stage liver failure. However, liver transplantation is greatly limited by a shortage of donors. Liver tissue engineering may offer an alternative by providing an implantable engineered liver. Currently, diverse types of engineering approaches for in vitro liver cell culture are available, including scaffold-based methods, microfluidic platforms, and micropatterning techniques. Active cell patterning via dielectrophoretic (DEP) force showed some advantages over other methods, including high speed, ease of handling, high precision and being label-free. This article summarizes liver function and regenerative mechanisms for better understanding in developing engineered liver. We then review recent advances in liver tissue engineering techniques and focus on DEP-based cell patterning, including microelectrode design and patterning configuration.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramics are promising bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering, particularly for bone repair. However, the low toughness of CS limits its application in load-bearing conditions. Recent findings indicating the promising biocompatibility of graphene imply that graphene can be used as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of composites. Here, we report a simple method for the synthesis of calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide (CS/rGO) composites using a hydrothermal approach followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Adding rGO to pure CS increased the hardness of the material by ∼40%, the elastic modulus by ∼52%, and the fracture toughness by ∼123%. Different toughening mechanisms were observed including crack bridging, crack branching, crack deflection, and rGO pull-out, thus increasing the resistance to crack propagation and leading to a considerable improvement in the fracture toughness of the composites. The formation of bone-like apatite on a range of CS/rGO composites with rGO weight percentages ranging from 0 to 1.5 has been investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF). The presence of a bone-like apatite layer on the composite surface after soaking in SBF was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The biocompatibility of the CS/rGO composites was characterized using methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assays in vitro. The cell adhesion results showed that human osteoblast cells (hFOB) can adhere to and develop on the CS/rGO composites. In addition, the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells on the CS/rGO composites were improved compared with the pure CS ceramics. These results suggest that calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide composites are promising materials for biomedical applications.
A mechanical-conditioning bioreactor has been developed to provide bi-axial loading to three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs within a highly controlled environment. The computer-controlled bioreactor is capable of applying axial compressive and shear deformations, individually or simultaneously at various regimes of strain and frequency. The reliability and reproducibility of the system were verified through validation of the spatial and temporal accuracy of platen movement, which was maintained over the operating length of the system. In the presence of actual specimens, the system was verified to be able to deliver precise bi-axial load to the specimens, in which the deformation of every specimen was observed to be relatively homogeneous. The primary use of the bioreactor is in the culture of chondrocytes seeded within an agarose hydrogel while subjected to physiological compressive and shear deformation. The system has been designed specifically to permit the repeatable quantification and characterisation of the biosynthetic activity of cells in response to a wide range of short and long term multi-dimensional loading regimes.
A major factor limiting survival following extensive thermal injury is insufficient availability of donor sites to provide enough skin for the required grafting procedures. Limitation of autologous grafting promotes the usage of allograft skin substitutes to promote wound healing. Here, we investigated the wound healing potential of allograft single layered tissue engineered skin which comprises of either keratinocytes (SLTES-K) or fibroblast (SLTES-F) with fibrin as the delivery system. Results from gross and microscopic evaluation showed our single layered tissue engineered skin constructed with keratinocytes or fibroblast after gamma radiation with the dosage of 2Gy could serve as allograft for the treatment of skin loss.
Mesenchymal stems cells (MSCs) are currently the focus of numerous therapeutic approaches in tissue engineering/repair because of their wide multi-lineage potential and their ability to modulate the immune system response following transplantation. Culturing these cells, while maintaining their multipotency in vitro, currently relies on biological substrates such as gelatin, collagen and fibronectin. In addition, harvesting cells from these substrates requires enzymatic or chemical treatment, a process that will remove a multitude of cellular surface proteins, clearly an undesirable process if cells are to be used therapeutically. Herein, we applied a high-throughput 'hydrogel microarray' screening approach to identify thermo-modulatable substrates which can support hES-MP and ADMSC growth, permit gentle reagent free passaging, whilst maintaining multi-lineage potential. In summary, the hydrogel substrate identified, poly(AEtMA-Cl-co-DEAA) cross-linked with MBA, permitted MSCs to be maintained over 10 passages (each time via thermo-modulation), with the cells retaining expression of MSC associated markers and lineage potency. This chemically defined system allowed the passaging and maintenance of cellular phenotype of this clinically important cell type, in the absence of harsh passaging and the need for biological substrates.
This study aims to pre-assess the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of poly(vinyl alcohol)-carboxylmethyl-chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCP) scaffold. PCP was lyophilised to create supermacroporous structures. 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of PCP scaffolds for chondrocytes attachment and proliferation. The ultrastructural was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Extracellular matrix (ECM) formation was evaluated using collagen type-II staining, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen assays. Histological analysis was conducted on 3-week implanted Sprague-Dawley rats. The MTT, IHC, SEM and TEM analyses confirm that PCP scaffolds promoted cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. The chondrocyte-PCP constructs secreted GAG and collagen type-II, both increased significantly from day-14 to day-28 (P