Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Ee YS, Lai LC, Reimann K, Lim PK
    Oncol Rep, 1999 6 22;6(4):843-6.
    PMID: 10373668
    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to inhibit the growth of mammary epithelial cells and may play a protective role in mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast, oestrogens promote the development of breast cancer. Oestrone sulphate (E1S) is a huge reservoir of active oestrogens in the breast being converted to the weak oestrogen, oestrone (E1), by oestrone sulphatase. E1 is reversibly converted by oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E2). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the TGF-beta1 isoform on growth and oestrogen metabolism in the hormone-dependent MCF-7 and hormone-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that TGF-beta1 significantly inhibited cell growth and stimulated the conversion of E1S to E1 and E1 to E2 in the MCF-7 cell line. In the MDA-MB-231 cell line TGF-beta1 significantly stimulated cell growth and inhibited the interconversions between E1 and E2. In conclusion, the growth inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on the MCF-7 cell line would appear to confer a protective effect in breast cancer. However, its ability to increase the amount of E2 would increase the risk of breast cancer. Which of these effects predominates in vivo remains to be explored. The growth stimulatory effect of TGF-beta1 on the MDA-MB-231 cell line probably acts through a mechanism independent of the effect of TGF-beta1 on oestrogen concentrations since this cell line is hormone unresponsive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology*
  2. Wong SF, Reimann K, Lai LC
    Pathology, 2001 Nov;33(4):454-9.
    PMID: 11827412
    Oestrogens play an important role in the development of breast cancer. Oestrone sulphate (E1S) acts as a huge reservoir of oestrogens in the breast and is converted to oestrone (E1) by oestrone sulphatase (E1STS). E1 is then reversibly converted to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E2) by oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E2DH). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) on cell growth, E1STS and E2DH activities in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II alone or in combination inhibited cell growth of both cell lines but no additive or synergistic effects were observed. The treatments significantly stimulated E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cell line, except for TGFbeta1 alone and TGFbeta1 and IGF-I in combination, where no effects were seen. Only TGFbeta1 and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate E1STS activity in the MCF-7 cells. There was no significant effect on E1STS activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells with any of the treatments. In the MCF-7 cells, TGFbeta1 and IGF-I, IGF-I and IGF-II, and TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II acted synergistically to stimulate the reductive E2DH activity, while only TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II synergistically stimulated the oxidative E2DH activity. There were no additive or synergistic effects on both oxidative and reductive E2DH activities in the MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, TGFbeta1, IGF-I and IGF-II may have effects on oestrogen metabolism, especially in the MCF-7 cell line where they stimulated the conversion of E1S to E1 and E1 to E2 and, thus, may have roles to play in the development of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology*
  3. Wee AS, Lim CK, Tan SL, Ahmad TS, Kamarul T
    Tissue Eng Part C Methods, 2022 10;28(10):501-510.
    PMID: 36082992 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2022.0112
    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been reported to promote chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation in the multipotent stromal cell (MSCs), and the transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) tends to be exclusively in promoting cell differentiation alone. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TGF-β1 and -β3 on the MSCs chondrogenic differentiation on the poly (vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-poly (ethylene glycol) (PVA-NOCC-PEG) scaffold, compared with that of monolayer and pellet cultures. In this study, P2 rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs were seeded either on the untreated six-well plate (for monolayer culture) or onto the PVA-NOCC-PEG scaffold or cultured as a pellet culture. The cultures were maintained in a chemically defined serum-free medium supplemented with 10 ng/mL of either TGF-β1 or TGF-β3. Cell viability assay, biochemical assay, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to determine the net effect of cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of each of the growth factors. The results showed that the PVA-NOCC-PEG scaffold enhanced MSCs cell proliferation from day 12 to 30 (p  0.05). In terms of chondrogenic differentiation, the PVA-NOCC-PEG scaffold augmented the GAGs secretion in MSCs and the mRNA expression levels of Sox9, Col2a1, Acan, and Comp were elevated (p  0.05). In conclusion, TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 enhanced the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs seeded on the PVA-NOCC-PEG scaffold; however, there was no significant difference between the effect of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3. Impact statement Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily members is a key requirement for the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, the effects of TGF-β1 and -β3 on MSC chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation on a novel three-dimensional scaffold, the poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol) (PVA-NOCC-PEG) scaffold, was evaluated. In this study, the results showed both TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 can enhance the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs seeded on the PVA-NOCC-PEG scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
  4. Rostam MA, Shajimoon A, Kamato D, Mitra P, Piva TJ, Getachew R, et al.
    J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2018 04;365(1):156-164.
    PMID: 29438988 DOI: 10.1124/jpet.117.244483
    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic growth factor implicated in the development of atherosclerosis for its role in mediating glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain hyperelongation on the proteoglycan biglycan, a phenomenon that increases the binding of atherogenic lipoproteins in the vessel wall. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor Smad has emerged as a critical step in the signaling pathways that control the synthesis of biglycan, both the core protein and the GAG chains. We have used flavopiridol, a well-known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, to study the role of linker region phosphorylation in the TGF-β-stimulated synthesis of biglycan. We used radiosulfate incorporation and SDS-PAGE to assess proteoglycan synthesis, real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess gene expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation to assess the binding of Smads to the promoter region of GAG Synthesizing genes. Flavopiridol blocked TGF-β-stimulated synthesis of mRNA for the GAG synthesizing enzymes, and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST-1), chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (ChSy-1) and TGF-β-mediated proteoglycans synthesis as well as GAG hyperelongation. Flavopiridol blocked TGF-β-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation at both the serine triplet and the isolated threonine residue in the linker region. The binding of Smad to the promoter region of the C4ST-1 and ChSy-1 genes was stimulated by TGF-β, and this response was blocked by flavopiridol, demonstrating that linker region phosphorylated Smad can pass to the nucleus and positively regulate transcription. These results demonstrate the validity of the kinases, which phosphorylate the Smad linker region as potential therapeutic target(s) for the development of an agent to prevent atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology*
  5. Rostam MA, Kamato D, Piva TJ, Zheng W, Little PJ, Osman N
    Cell Signal, 2016 08;28(8):956-66.
    PMID: 27153775 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2016.05.002
    Hyperelongation of glycosaminoglycan chains on proteoglycans facilitates increased lipoprotein binding in the blood vessel wall and the development of atherosclerosis. Increased mRNA expression of glycosaminoglycan chain synthesizing enzymes in vivo is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. In human vascular smooth muscle, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) regulates glycosaminoglycan chain hyperelongation via ERK and p38 as well as Smad2 linker region (Smad2L) phosphorylation. In this study, we identified the involvement of TGF-β receptor, intracellular serine/threonine kinases and specific residues on transcription factor Smad2L that regulate glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzymes. Of six glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzymes, xylosyltransferase-1, chondroitin sulfate synthase-1, and chondroitin sulfotransferase-1 were regulated by TGF-β. In addition ERK, p38, PI3K and CDK were found to differentially regulate mRNA expression of each enzyme. Four individual residues in the TGF-β receptor mediator Smad2L can be phosphorylated by these kinases and in turn regulate the synthesis and activity of glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzymes. Smad2L Thr220 was phosphorylated by CDKs and Smad2L Ser250 by ERK. p38 selectively signalled via Smad2L Ser245. Phosphorylation of Smad2L serine residues induced glycosaminoglycan synthesizing enzymes associated with glycosaminoglycan chain elongation. Phosphorylation of Smad2L Thr220 was associated with XT-1 enzyme regulation, a critical enzyme in chain initiation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the complex signalling pathways that contribute to glycosaminoglycan chain modification that could be targeted using pharmacological agents to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
  6. Poh YW, Gan SY, Tan EL
    Exp Oncol, 2012 Jul;34(2):85-9.
    PMID: 23013758
    The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β are able to confer resistance to apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by upregulating the expression of survivin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology*
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