The differentiation between a pseudo-pneumoperitoneum and true pneumoperitoneum on an initial chest radiograph is challenging but essential to clinical practice. The former is managed conservatively whereas the latter may require surgical intervention. Chilaiditi's sign describes a rare incidental radiological finding of gas filled bowel interpositioned between the right hemi-diaphragm and the liver, which is visible on a plain abdominal or chest radiograph. It is often misdiagnosed as a pneumoperitoneum. Correct diagnosis of Chilaiditi's sign in an asymptomatic patient can prevent unnecessary procedures. We have reported one incidental chest radiograph with Chilaiditi's sign in a patient presenting and treated for pneumonia. The report aims to illustrate the diagnostic dilemma experienced by clinicians in distinguishing a true versus pseudo-pneumoperitoneum on a chest radiograph.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary tumor of the liver and carries a poor prognosis when diagnosed late or left untreated. Treatment relies heavily on the stage of the tumor when diagnosed. Extrahepatic metastasis is known to occur; these are mainly reported via autopsy studies or isolated case reports. Knowledge of extrahepatic metastasis is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary surgery. We report a rare case of a patient at our center, diagnosed to have HCC, who underwent treatment successfully, only to come back with extrahepatic metastasis to the skeletal muscles.
Primary parotid lymphoma is uncommon and rarely suspected. In most cases, the disease would have disseminated at the time of diagnosis. We describe a case of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the parotid gland which progressed to the central nervous system. Clinical history is of limited value in identifying this condition. Diagnostic imaging studies (CT or MRI) may indicate whether or not the mass is salivary in origin but do not help to confirm the diagnosis. In this case, it was deemed that FNA alone is incapable of determining the precise histological subtype for lymphoma, whilst a tru-cut biopsy demonstrated a more sensitive method of determining the diagnosis. The lessons learned from this case would prove useful for other health care providers to make an early diagnosis and hopefully manage more effectively if similar conditions appear in their practice. Performing the appropriate measures can help to not only improve the prognosis but may even avert the prospect of unnecessary surgery.
Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition which has been described to exist in primary and secondary forms. A lack of awareness of this entity can lead to unnecessary procedures and incorrect management. We report a case of a patient on peritoneal dialysis who presented with multiple painful joint swellings to the orthopaedic department. An initial diagnosis of septic arthritis was made, then revised to chronic tophaceous gout and referred to the rheumatology unit.
An open access endoscopy system allows for the direct scheduling of endoscopies by non-gastroenterologist physicians without prior gastroenterology consultation. The aim of our study was to examine our practice of open access endoscopy by evaluating the appropriateness of referrals for colonoscopy and to determine whether there were differences depending on the specialty of the referring clinician. The indication for colonoscopy was assessed in 499 consecutive outpatients referred for colonoscopy at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 12-month period. The American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines were used to determine the appropriateness of referrals. 80.6% of colonoscopies requested by the gastroenterologist were performed for accepted indications compared to 50.6% of referrals by the primary care physician (p<0.001) and 67.0% of referrals by the surgeon (p=0.006). The rate of colonoscopies generally not indicated was 2.1% for the gastroenterologist, 25.0% for the internist (p=0.002) and 7.5% for the surgeon (p=0.04). The rate of indications not listed in the ASGE guidelines was significantly lower for requests made by gastroenterologists (17.3%) than those requested by primary care physicians (44.2%; p<0.001). Patients who have had prior consultation with the gastroenterologist were significantly more likely to undergo colonoscopy for appropriate indications than among patients who were referred through an open access system. The rate of inappropriate indications for colonoscopy was also significantly lower when the gastroenterologist made the referral. A substantial proportion of colonoscopies (25.4%) was performed for indications not listed in the ASGE guidelines.
Matched MeSH terms: Unnecessary Procedures/statistics & numerical data
To determine the predictability of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guideline with regard to appropriate endoscopic practice in children, positive endoscopic findings and contributive yield in clinical practice.
A prospective study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who received an antibiotic within 12 hours of admission to the medical wards. During the four-week study, 234 patients were admitted to medical wards from casualty; 68 patients (29%) received an antibiotic. The survey indicated that antibiotics were inappropriate in 22-65% of those treated. This study also shows that as many as 67% of patients who received intravenous antibiotics could have been equally well treated with oral preparations.
Intraorbital foreign body (IOFB) has been a rare phenomenon in the cases of gunshot wounds and always represents a dilemma in medical management. In Sabah, this scenario is becoming common as there is still certain population in the interiors who owns self made guns for hunting. They either present with self inflicted gunshot injuries or after being mistakenly shot while hunting. There are very few articles on this topic especially when it is located posteriorly in the orbit and occurs without visual impairment. This case reports the challenges faced in the management of the patient with a posteriorly located metallic IOFB. The appropriate management of the patient is discussed based on several international literatures. Author describes a 37 years old male farmer, who was referred from a nearby district hospital after he sustained gunshot injuries to his face and scalp. Urgent computed tomography (CT) scan showed that bullet pellets were at the left orbital floor, the left mandible and the left frontal bone. All bullet pellets were located extracranially only without intracranial involvement. Patient clinically does not have any neurologic deficit and without any visual impairment, thus he refused any surgical intervention. As there is no proper guideline in managing such cases, decision was made based on evidences from international literatures. It was concluded that metallic IOFB located in the posterior orbit may be conservatively managed with observation and regular follow-ups as they are well-tolerated and does not cause much impact on visual deterioration unless inflammation, infection, optic neuropathy or functional deficit occurs. This avoids unnecessary surgery and prevents risk of iatrogenic injury to the eye.
The is currently a heavy burden on endoscopy services worldwide and although guidelines for the appropriate use of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) have been well studied, there are few such studies with respect to colonoscopy and none for the Asia-Pacific region. This study aimed, firstly, to determine the 'appropriateness of colonoscopy' for procedures performed in the endoscopy unit of a large Asian hospital using the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) 2000 guidelines, and secondly, to determine predictive factors including 'appropriateness of colonoscopy' for positive findings and colorectal cancer (CRC).