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  1. Tan MS, Wang Y, Dykes GA
    Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 2013 Nov;10(11):992-4.
    PMID: 23941519 DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2013.1536
    This study aimed to establish, as a proof of concept, whether bacterial cellulose (BC)-derived plant cell wall models could be used to investigate foodborne bacterial pathogen attachment. Attachment of two strains each of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes to four BC-derived plant cell wall models (namely, BC, BC-pectin [BCP], BC-xyloglucan [BCX], and BC-pectin-xyloglucan [BCPX]) was investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the BCPX composite (31% cellulose, 45.6% pectin, 23.4% xyloglucan) had a composition typical of plant cell walls. The Salmonella strains attached in significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers (~6 log colony-forming units [CFU]/cm(2)) to the composites than the Listeria strains (~5 log CFU/cm(2)). Strain-specific differences were also apparent with one Salmonella strain, for example, attaching in significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers to the BCX composite than to the other composites. This study highlights the potential usefulness of these composites to understand attachment of foodborne bacteria to fresh produce.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xylans/chemistry
  2. Khan MUA, Haider S, Shah SA, Razak SIA, Hassan SA, Kadir MRA, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 May 15;151:584-594.
    PMID: 32081758 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.02.142
    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a natural biological macromolecule with several potential biomedical applications. In this research, AX, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) based polymeric nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by the freeze-drying method. The physicochemical characterizations of these polymeric nanocomposite scaffolds were performed for surface morphology, porosity, swelling, biodegradability, mechanical, and biological properties. The scaffolds exhibited good porosity and rough surface morphology, which were efficiently controlled by TiO2 concentrations. MC3T3-E1 cells were employed to conduct the biocompatibility of these scaffolds. Scaffolds showed unique biocompatibility in vitro and was favorable for cell attachment and growth. PNS3 proved more biocompatible, showed interconnected porosity and substantial mechanical strength compared to PNS1, PNS2 and PNS4. Furthermore, it has also showed more affinity to cells and cell growth. The results illustrated that the bioactive nanocomposite scaffold has the potential to find applications in the tissue engineering field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xylans/chemistry*
  3. Tan MSF, Rahman S, Dykes GA
    Food Microbiol., 2017 Apr;62:62-67.
    PMID: 27889167 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.10.009
    This study investigated the removal of bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, using sonication, and examined its effect on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to plant cell walls. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells were subjected to sonication at 20 kHz to remove surface structures without affecting cell viability. Effective removal of flagella was determined by staining flagella of sonicated cells with Ryu's stain and enumerating the flagella remaining by direct microscopic counting. The attachment of sonicated S. Typhimurium cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material (potato, apple, lettuce) was then evaluated. Varying concentrations of pectin and/or xyloglucan were used to produce a range of bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. As compared to the non-sonicated controls, sonicated S. Typhimurium cells attached in significantly lower numbers (between 0.5 and 1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) to all surfaces except to the bacterial cellulose-only composite without pectin and xyloglucan. Since attachment of S. Typhimurium to the bacterial cellulose-only composite was not affected by sonication, this suggests that bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, could have specific interactions with pectin and xyloglucan. This study indicates that sonication may have potential applications for reducing Salmonella attachment during the processing of fresh produce.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xylans/chemistry
  4. Tan MS, Moore SC, Tabor RF, Fegan N, Rahman S, Dykes GA
    BMC Microbiol, 2016 09 15;16:212.
    PMID: 27629769 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-016-0832-2
    BACKGROUND: Processing of fresh produce exposes cut surfaces of plant cell walls that then become vulnerable to human foodborne pathogen attachment and contamination, particularly by Salmonella enterica. Plant cell walls are mainly composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, pectin and hemicelluloses (predominantly xyloglucan). Our previous work used bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models to study the interaction between Salmonella and the various plant cell wall components. We demonstrated that Salmonella attachment was favoured in the presence of pectin while xyloglucan had no effect on its attachment. Xyloglucan significantly increased the attachment of Salmonella cells to the plant cell wall model only when it was in association with pectin. In this study, we investigate whether the plant cell wall polysaccharides mediate Salmonella attachment to the bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models through specific carbohydrate interactions or through the effects of carbohydrates on the physical characteristics of the attachment surface.

    RESULTS: We found that none of the monosaccharides that make up the plant cell wall polysaccharides specifically inhibit Salmonella attachment to the bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that Salmonella cells can penetrate and attach within the tightly arranged bacterial cellulose network. Analysis of images obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed that the bacterial cellulose-pectin-xyloglucan composite with 0.3 % (w/v) xyloglucan, previously shown to have the highest number of Salmonella cells attached to it, had significantly thicker cellulose fibrils compared to other composites. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed that the bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose-xyloglucan composites were more porous when compared to the other composites containing pectin.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that the attachment of Salmonella cells to cut plant cell walls was not mediated by specific carbohydrate interactions. This suggests that the attachment of Salmonella strains to the plant cell wall models were more dependent on the structural characteristics of the attachment surface. Pectin reduces the porosity and space between cellulose fibrils, which then forms a matrix that is able to retain Salmonella cells within the bacterial cellulose network. When present with pectin, xyloglucan provides a greater surface for Salmonella cells to attach through the thickening of cellulose fibrils.

    Matched MeSH terms: Xylans/chemistry
  5. Khan MUA, Raza MA, Razak SIA, Abdul Kadir MR, Haider A, Shah SA, et al.
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2020 10;14(10):1488-1501.
    PMID: 32761978 DOI: 10.1002/term.3115
    It is a challenging task to develop active biomacromolecular wound dressing materials that are biocompatible and possesses antibacterial properties against the bacterial strains that cause severe skin disease. This work is focused on the preparation of a biocompatible and degradable hydrogel for wound dressing application using arabinoxylan (ARX) and guar gum (GG) natural polymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed that both ARX and GG interacted well with each other, and their interactions further increased with the addition of crosslinker tetraethyl orthosilicate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed uniform porous morphologies of the hydrogels. The porous morphologies and uniform interconnected pores are attributed to the increased crosslinking of the hydrogel. Elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture strain of the hydrogels significantly improved (from ATG-1 to ATG-4) with crosslinking. Degradability tests showed that hydrogels lost maximum weight in 7 days. All the samples showed variation in swelling with pH. Maximum swelling was observed at pH 7. The hydrogel samples showed good antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) in PBS, good drug release profile (92% drug release), and nontoxic cellular behavior. The cells not only retained their cylindrical morphologies onto the hydrogel but were also performing their normal activities. It is, therefore, believed that as-developed hydrogel could be a potential material for wound dressing application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xylans/chemistry
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