Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Chang TC, Cheng HH
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):351-4.
    PMID: 7545778
    The use of maternal age alone to identify pregnant mothers at risk of a fetus with Down's syndrome has recently been supplemented by maternal serum screening using biochemical markers such as alpha-protein, human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestriol. These tests have been reported to increase the sensitivity of antenatal detection of such fetuses from 35% to 67% with a false positive rate of 5%. However, these maternal serum markers may be affected by maternal weight, the smoking history of mothers and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, such sensitivities are achieved only when gestational age is assessed accurately by ultrasound. Many further studies need to be carried out before the introduction of maternal serum screening into routine obstetric practice in Singapore. These include studies on the incidence of Down's syndrome in the local population, studies on the distribution of these serum markers in the second trimester of pregnancy, sensitivities and positive predictive values of such a test in the local population as well as the socio-economic implications of implementing such a screening test in the local obstetric population.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis*
  2. Lopez JB, Balasegaram M, Thambyrajah V
    Int. J. Biol. Markers, 1996 Jul-Sep;11(3):178-82.
    PMID: 8915714
    This study was undertaken to investigate whether serum CA 125 could complement alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) to improve the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CA 125 showed a sensitivity of 92% for HCC against the 58.8% sensitivity of AFP at the cutoff value of 200 ng/ml. However, the former was less specific (48.5% versus 97.4%) in relation to benign liver diseases (BLD). CA 125 had a higher negative predictive value (NPV) of 84.6% compared to 69.2% for AFP; when both markers were combined, however, the NPV rose to 91.7%. Overall, AFP was more efficient than CA 125 for the diagnosis of HCC. While a positive AFP result was highly indicative of HCC, a negative result did not rule out the disease; however, negative AFP and CA 125 meant that the likelihood of the disease was low. In situations of low HCC prevalence, CA 125 could serve as a first-line screening test followed by confirmation of positives by AFP.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
  3. Yap SF, Peh SC
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Dec;13(2):115-8.
    PMID: 1726642
    Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and its expression in liver tissue was studied in 50 cases of histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum AFP levels were elevated (greater than 20iu/ml) in 35/50 (70%) of the cases, 28 of whom had levels greater than 500 iu/ml, which is highly suggestive of HCC. These results indicate that serum AFP, by itself, is a relatively insensitive diagnostic test for HCC. Although elevated levels in high risk patients provide a specific clue, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis of HCC. Expression of AFP by tumour cells paralleled that of serum in the majority of cases. However, tissue AFP was negative in 7 patients who had markedly elevated serum AFP. This observation may be a reflection of preferential excretion of the tumour antigen or differential expression of the antigen by the tumour cells. None of the patients with normal serum AFP demonstrated a reaction for tissue AFP. There was no correlation between AFP production and tumour differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis*
  4. Singh P
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Jun;33(4):311-6.
    PMID: 93235
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
  5. Kothare SN
    Singapore Med J, 1978 Dec;19(4):220-4.
    PMID: 87015
    This is a preliminary report of 46 sera tested for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) by the Counter immuno-electrophoresis technique in which biopsies for histopathology were also submitted. In 42 cases the needle biopsy of the liver was available. The material was divided into two groups on the basis of AFP positive and AFP negative sera and their histological diagnosis. The overall positivity rate in proven Primary liver cell carcinoma was 64.2 per cent.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis*
  6. Balasegaram M
    Am J Surg, 1975 Jul;130(1):33-7.
    PMID: 50750
    A review of 352 patients with primary liver cell carcinoma treated by the author is presented. The poor rate of resectability (7 per cent) has necessitated various forms of treatment over the years. These are described in detail. Based on this experience, the current form of treatment for nonresectable carcinoma is summarized. Although it is too early to assess this form of treatment, initial results appear to be promising. A second report in the near future is planned.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
  7. Duarte-Salles T, Misra S, Stepien M, Plymoth A, Muller D, Overvad K, et al.
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 2016 Sep;9(9):758-65.
    PMID: 27339170 DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-15-0434
    We previously identified osteopontin (OPN) as a promising marker for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the association between prediagnostic circulating OPN levels and HCC incidence in a large population-based cohort. A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 100 HCC cases were identified. Each case was matched to two controls and OPN levels were measured in baseline plasma samples. Viral hepatitis, liver function, and α-fetoprotein (AFP) tests were also conducted. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate multivariable odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for OPN levels in relation to HCC. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine the discriminatory accuracy of OPN alone or in combination with other liver biomarkers in the prediction of HCC. OPN levels were positively associated with HCC risk (per 10% increment, ORmultivariable = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.48). The association was stronger among cases diagnosed within 2 years of follow-up. Adding liver function tests to OPN improved the discriminatory performance for subjects who developed HCC (AUC = 0.86). For cases diagnosed within 2 years, the combination of OPN and AFP was best able to predict HCC risk (AUC = 0.88). The best predictive model for HCC in this low-risk population is OPN in combination with liver function tests. Within 2 years of diagnosis, the combination of OPN and AFP best predicted HCC development, suggesting that measuring OPN and AFP could identify high-risk groups independently of a liver disease diagnosis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 758-65. ©2016 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
  8. Lopez JB, Thambyrajah V, Balasegaram M, Satgunasingam N
    Br J Biomed Sci, 1994 Jun;51(2):177-80.
    PMID: 7519505
    Sera from 80 Malaysians with confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma were tested for five markers of the hepatitis B virus, anti-HCV and anti-HDV by enzyme immunoassay, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Of the patients, 98.8% had evidence of HBV infection and 75% were positive for HBsAg--which latter correlated with AFP raised above cut-off values of 500 ng/ml (P = 0.0001) and 200 ng/ml (P = 0.005). Males correlated significantly with the presence of HBsAg (P = 0.002). Thirty-one per cent of HBsAg positive patients were also positive for HBeAg and 74% for anti-HBe. Twenty per cent of the cases were concurrently positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs. Six of 70 (8.6%) patients were positive for anti-HCV, of whom four were also positive for HBsAg. None of 67 patients tested for anti-HDV were positive. The results strongly indicate an important aetiological role for hepatitis B virus in causation of hepatocellular carcinoma among Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
  9. Tan GH, Azrif M, Shamsul AS, Ho CC, Praveen S, Goh EH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(10):2727-30.
    PMID: 22320982
    INTRODUCTION: Testicular cancer mainly affects young men worldwide. There is lack of published data on patients with this malignant condition from the Southeast Asian region. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the clinicopathologic features of testicular cancer patients treated in a Southeast Asian university hospital and their overall survival rate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of testicular cancer patients treated between January 2001 and February 2011. Their epidemiological data, clinical presentation, pathologic diagnosis, stage of disease and treatment were gathered and the overall survival rate of this cohort was analyzed.

    RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were included in this study. The majority of them were of Malay ethnicity. The average age at presentation was 33.7 years. The commonest testicular cancer was non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, followed by seminoma, lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. More than half of all testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients had some form of metastasis at diagnosis. All the patients were treated with radical orchidectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to those with metastatic disease. Four seminoma patients received radiotherapy to the para-aortic lymph nodes. The 5-year survival rate for all testicular cancers in this cohort was 83.9%. The survival rate was 88.9% in 5 years when GCT were analyzed separately.

    CONCLUSION: GCT affects patients in their third and fourth decades of life while lymphoma patients are generally older. Most of the patients treated for GCT are of Malay ethnicity. The majority have late presentation for treatment. The survival rate of GCT patients treated here is comparable to other published series in other parts of the world.

    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
  10. Lopez JB, Balasegaram M, Timor J, Thambyrajah V
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):53-8.
    PMID: 10879242
    Although alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is regarded as the reference marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it sometimes produces false results. The objective of this study was to see if some of the readily available laboratory markers could complement AFP to improve the laboratory diagnosis of HCC. The markers tested and their sensitivities were: CA 125, 92%; ferritin, 71.3%; CA 19-9, 69.8%; beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), 53.3%; CA 72-4, 13.6%; and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 10.6%. In comparison, AFP had a sensitivity of 58.8%. CA 72-4 and CEA (at the "tumour" cut-off level of 20 ng/ml) had specificities of 100%, and AFP, 97.4%. The specificities of the other markers were less impressive: CEA, 77.8% (at the cut-off level of 5 ng/ml); ferritin, 48.6%; CA 125, 48.5%; B2M, 39.6%; and CA 19-9, 37.3%. The efficiencies of the markers for HCC, which are based on the consideration of sensitivity and specificity together, were as follows: AFP, 77.6%; CA 125, 71.3%; ferritin, 60.5%; CA 19-9, 55.3; B2M, 46.9%; CEA, 40.8%; and CA 72-4, 34.5%. The receiver-operating characteristic plots confirmed AFP to be the most efficient marker for HCC. Nevertheless, it is proposed that CA 125 be combined with AFP for HCC screening because of their excellent sensitivity and specificity, respectively: a negative result for both, or even just CA 125 alone, would indicate that the disease is unlikely while a positive AFP (which would likely occur with a positive CA 125) would make its presence highly probable. A positive CA 125 and negative AFP would be equivocal for HCC. Other markers in combination with AFP are less useful.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis*
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