Browse publications by year: 1960

  1. Nicholls J
    Med J Malaya, 1960;15.
    Motor nerves to voluntary muscle terminate in motor end plates applied to the muscle fibers. Between these two is a membrane with different electric potentials on each side of it. When a motor impulse arrives at the end plate, acetylcholine is released. As a result of this the electric potential difference across the membrane disappears (“depolarization”) and an electrical wave spreads from it throughout the muscle, causing it to contract. Curare blocks the action of the acetylcholine on the end plate, competing with it for a place on the end plate molecules, and so is called a “competitive blocker”. Gallamine (Flaxedil) acts in the same way. Scoline, on the other hand, causes depolarization of the end plate membrane (hence the description “depolarizing” group of relaxants) and this does not produce, as one might expect, a sustained tetanic contraction of the muscle, but renders it unexcitable so that nerve impulses produce no effect. Thus, we have our two groups of relaxants – the competitive blockers like curare, and the depolarizers like scoline (suxamethonium).
    MeSH terms: Anesthetics
  2. Alhady SMA, Bowler DP, Reid HA, Scott LT
    Br Med J, 1960;1:540-545.
    Tetanus may be mild, moderate, severe, or inevitably fatal. Our clinical experience suggests it may be classified as severe (or, maybe, inevitably fatal) when a tetanic spasm stops respiration. Ten patients with severe tetanus were treated by the total paralysis regime (T.P.R.), consisting of tracheostomy, curarization, and intermittent positiveor positive/negative-pressure respiration. Two of the patients were saved by T.P.R. and therefore only limited effectiveness can be claimed for the regime. In inevitably fatal cases survival can be prolonged by T.P.R. so that further effects of tetanus toxin emerge. Of these, the most important appears to be direct damage to the myocardium.
    MeSH terms: Myocardium; Paralysis; Respiration; Spasm; Survival; Tetanus; Tracheostomy
  3. Covell G
    Br Med J, 1960;1:1623-1624.
    MeSH terms: London; Malaria; Singapore; Review
  4. Nixon WCW
    Br Med J, 1960;1:655.
    MeSH terms: History of Medicine; History, 20th Century
  5. Ross JD
    Br Med J, 1960;1:1338.
    MeSH terms: Tuberculosis
  6. Muir CS
    Br. J. Cancer, 1960;14:1-7.
    DOI: 10.1038/bjc.1960.1
    The main morbid anatomical features of the 176 lung, the 2 tracheal, and the 13 laryngeal cancers seen in the 22,997 post-mortems performed by the University and Government Departments of Pathology, Singapore, from 1948-58 inclusive, are described, and are seen to be as elsewhere. About one-tenth of all cancers admitted to hospital, and of all cancers registered by the Registrar-General (Singapore) from 1954-58 inclusive were in the lung. In 15 per cent of all post-mortems on persons with malignant disease, the primary tumour was of pulmonary origin. The crude death rate for cancer of the lung in Singapore for 1954-58 inclusive was 0-065 per 1000 living per annum. More cases of lung cancer are seen before the age of 40 than in the West. The consumption of tobacco in Singapore is noted to be 3-7 lb. (1.7 kg) per person per annum. A portion of the literature on cancer of the lung in South-East Asia and in China is discussed. I wish to thank Professor R. Kirk for kind help and encouragement, my colleagues of the Government and University Departments of Pathology for access to their post-mortem notes and records, Mr. E. J. Phillips and Mr. S. C. Chua of the Department of Statistics, Singapore, and Mr. Lee of the Customs Department, Singapore, for various data, Mr. Ti Teow See for Fig. 1, and Mr. P. A. Samuel who typed the script. This communication forms part of a thesis for the degree of Ph.D. (Malaya). © 1960, The British Empire Cancer Campaign for Research. All rights reserved.
    MeSH terms: Neoplasms; Respiratory System
  7. Webb JKG
    DOI: 10.1007/BF02756459
    1. The pathological changes in the lung, liver and lymph-nodes of typical cases of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia are described. 2. Microfilariae have been demonstrated in the centre of nodules in each of these tissues, suggesting that direct invasion by these organisms is the cause of the lesion in this disease. 3. Cases have been encountered with lymph-node and hepatic, but without lung involvement. The lesions in these cases are similar to those seen in the lung, and microfilariae are present. A plea is made to enlarge the concept of tropical eosinophilia to include such cases, and the same time to restrict it to those in which a filarial infection is proved or suspected. 4. Microfilariae recovered from lymph-nodes have been provisionally identified as W. bancrofti-type, but on the analogy of findings in Malaya, it is suggested that these may be of animal origin and that zoonotic filariasis remains the most likely explanation of tropical eosinophilia. © 1960 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.
    MeSH terms: Eosinophilia; Eosinophilia/etiology
  8. Khoo FY, Danaraj TJ
    PMID: 14408899
    MeSH terms: Eosinophilia/pathology*; Humans; Leukocyte Disorders*; Lung Diseases/pathology*
  9. Danaraj TJ, LaBrooy EB
    Singapore Med J, 1960 Mar;1(1):16-32.
    PMID: 13719549
    Six cases of Ebstein's malformation are reported. The notable clinical features seen in four patients were gross enlargement of the
    heart, venous congestion and marked hepatosplenomegaly. There was complete heart block in one patient and auricular fibrillation in the remaining three. The unusual pathologic features in the four cases that came to necropsy were the large pericardial effusions associated with the cardiomegaly, the absence of an atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale, the gross enlargement of liver with cirrhotic changes and the large spleen. Histologic examination of heart muscle revealed certain unusual features which are described.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; China/ethnology; Ebstein Anomaly*; Female; Heart Defects, Congenital*; Humans; Male; Medical Records*; Singapore; Tricuspid Valve*
  10. Schacher JF, Danaraj TJ
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1960 Nov;9(6):616-9.
    PMID: 13747131
    The above survey based on a study of single stool specimens from 569 patients, drawn from a hospital population belonging to different ethnic groups and having different cultural backgrounds, failed to indicate an association between intestinal helminth infection and eosinophilic lung. The higher prevalence of eosinophilic lung in Indians than in the other ethnic groups, as reported previously, cannot be explained on a basis of differences in the prevalence of the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Eosinophilia/complications*; Helminthiasis/complications*; Helminths*; Humans; Intestines*; Singapore
    PMID: 13776649
    MeSH terms: Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*; Data Collection*; Humans; Malaysia; Nutrition Surveys*
    J R Army Med Corps, 1960 Jan;106:12-21.
    PMID: 13841274
    MeSH terms: Humans; Influenza, Human/epidemiology*; Malaysia; Military Medicine*; Military Personnel*
  13. Reid JA
    Bull World Health Organ, 1960;22:586-7.
    PMID: 14437086
    MeSH terms: Animals; Bedbugs*; DDT/pharmacology*; Dieldrin/pharmacology*; Humans; Insecticides/pharmacology*; Malathion*; Malaysia; Culicidae*
    Med J Malaya, 1960 Mar;14:162-5.
    PMID: 13767158
    MeSH terms: Areca/toxicity*; Humans; Malaysia; Mouth Neoplasms*; Neoplasms*
    Med J Malaya, 1960 Mar;14:187-90.
    PMID: 13767159
    MeSH terms: Animals; Enterobius*; Humans; Invertebrates*; Male; Medical Records*; Nematode Infections*; Prostate/parasitology*
    Med J Malaya, 1960 Mar;14:158-61.
    PMID: 13767160
    MeSH terms: Child; Humans; Infant; Malaysia; Neoplasms*
  17. MENON KA
    Med J Malaya, 1960 Mar;14:184-6.
    PMID: 13769480
    MeSH terms: Tetanus/therapy*; Tetanus Toxoid*
  18. MILLIS J
    Med J Malaya, 1960 Mar;14:177-80.
    PMID: 13770937
    MeSH terms: Body Height*; Child; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Asian Continental Ancestry Group*
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