A new enterovirus, now classified as enterovirus type 70, was isolated from the conjunctiva of patients with acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis during the 1971 epidemics that occurred in Japan, Singapore, and Morocco. These epidemics were parts of a pandemic involving Africa (Algeria, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Tunisia), Asia (Cambodia, China (Province of Taiwan), Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand), and England during 1969-71. A representative strain from each of the three epidemic areas was studied cooperatively. The strains exhibited the physicochemical characteristics of enteroviruses. Cross-neutralization tests showed that these viruses were distinct from all known human enterovirus immunotypes, but that they were antigenically closely related. The human origin of the viruses was demonstrated by the appearance of homologous neutralizing antibodies during convalescence in patients with acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis.
MeSH terms: Community Mental Health Services*; Ethnic Groups; Humans; Malaysia; Medicine, East Asian Traditional; Medicine, Traditional; Referral and Consultation*; Schizophrenia/epidemiology; Social Behavior Disorders/epidemiology; Social Class; Social Control, Informal; Stress, Physiological