The presence of at least two ionizable active center groups has been detected by a study of the effect of pH upon catalysis of hydrolysis of L-alanyl-beta-naphthylamide by human liver alanine aminopeptidase and upon the inhibition of hydrolysis by inhibitors and substrate analogs. Octanoic acid, octylamine, and peptide inhibitors have been found to be competitive inhibitors and are therefore thought to bind the active center. L-Phe was previously shown to bind the active center since it was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of tripeptide substrates (Garner, C. W., and Behal, F. J. (1975), Biochemistry 14, 3208). A plot of pKm vs. pH for the substrate L-Ala-beta-naphthylamide showed that binding decreased below pH 5.9 and above 7.5, the points at which the theoretical curve undergoes an integral change in slope. These points are interpreted as the pKa either of substrate ionizable groups or binding-dependent enzyme active center groups. Similar plots of pKm vs. pH for L-alanyl-p-nitroanilide (as substrate) and pKi vs. pH for L-Leu-L-Leu-L-Leu and D-Leu-L-Tyr (as inhibitors) gave pairs fo pKa values of 5.8 and 7.4, 6.0 and 7.5, and 5.7 and 7.5, respectively. All the above substrates (and D-Leu-L-Tyr) have pKa values near 7.5; therefore, the binding-dependent group with a pKa value near 7.5 is possibly this substrate group. Similar plots of pKi vs. pH for the inhibitors L-Phe, L-Met, L-Leu, octylamine, and octanoic acid had only one bending point at 7.7, 7.6, 7.4, 6.3, and 5.9, respectively. Amino acid inhibitors, octylamine, and octanoic acid have no groups with pKa values between 5 and 9. These data indicate that there are two active center ionizable groups with pKa values of approximately 6.0 and 7.5 which are involved in substrate binding or inhibitory amino acid binding but not in catalysis since Vmax was constant at all pH values tested.
The diverse clinical syndromes characterized by asthmatic symptoms, transient pulmonary infiltrates, and eosinophilia have tended to obscure the specific association of one such entity with filarial infections. Serum IgE levels were determined before and after therapy in a group of well-characterized patients with tropical eosinophilia (TE), studied earlier in Singapore. The mean serum IgE level in 14 cases before treatment with diethylcarbamazine was 2,355 ng. per milliliter, with a trend but statistically nonsignificant decrease in levels to 600-1,000 ng. occurring 8 to 12 weeks after therapy. Leukocyte and eosinophil counts showed a rapid reduction after treatment, and although mean complement-fixing (cf) titers to Dirofilarial antigen tended to decrease, they were not significantly reduced until 5 to 6 weeks. The historical development of evidence supporting the filarial etiology of TE was reviewed. Many basic questions engendered by the clinical syndrome of tropical eosinophilia make it an excellent model for study of the immunopathology of parasitic infections.
14 strains of Getah virus were isolated from a variety of mosquito species collected in Sarawak between October 1968 and February 1970. Ten strains were isolated from C. tritaeniorhynchus 7 of them at K. Tijirak. Single strains were isolated from C. gelidus, C. pseudovishnui, M. bonneae/dives and Aanopheles species. 6 of the isolates were obtained in October 1968 when Japanese encephalitis, Tembusu and Sindbis viruses were also very active. The available evidence suggest that Getah virus in Sarawak is maintained in a cycle similar to that of Japanese encephalitis virus and involves C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus and domestic pigs.
The Noctuid Calpe [Calyptral] eustrigata Hmps. was reported as a skin-piercing blood-sucking moth for the first time in Malaya (Bänziger, 1968) and is so far the only lepidopteran proved to suck blood by means of a piercing act. A few field observations and the description of the piercing behaviour of caged moths were given. Apart from a taxonomic study of the genus Calpe (Berio, 1956), a single record (Büttiker, 1969) and some notes on the moth's proboscis and possible evolutionary pathway (Bänziger, 1970, 1971, 1972) to our knowledge no other data have been published on the moth after its description as a new species (Hampson, 1926). The life cycle is completely unknown. From the scanty museum specimens available, it appears that the species inhabits South and Southeast Asia. A closely related, though less rare species, the fruit-piercing C. thalictri Bkh., has been used for a detailed study of the piercing mechanism likely to be adopted by Calpe (Bänziger, 1970); the feeding turned out to be as unusual as the feeding habits. Little or nothing is known about other Calpe species. C. eustrigata is not the only adult lepidopterous parasite of mammals. Lachryphagous ("eye-frequenting") moths feed as "marginal" parasites upon eye-secretions of ungulates, elephants and occasionally man (Shannon, 1928; Reid, 1954; Büttiker, 1964, 1967; Bänziger, 1966). Arcyophora species and the eulachryphagous Noctuid Lobocraspis graseifusa Hmps. which apparently feeds exclusively upon eye discharges, are suspected as vectors of eye diseases (Guilbride et al., 1959, Büttiker, 1964; Bänziger, 1972). While no lachryphagous moth is able to suck blood by a piercing act, there are a number of facultative lachryphagous moths which lick up the blood freely present at wounds, or that excreted anally by mosquitoes (Bänziger, 1969, 1972). Because of the scientific interest in C. eustrigata, research has been carried out to investigate different biological aspects of the species in Malaysia, Thailand. Laos and Indonesia (May 1971-May 1973). The first account presented here will be continued with a paper (in prep.) on the piercing mechanism and soon, it is hoped, with more information on the physiology, life cycle and medical importance of the moth.
The overall comparisons of habitats are given in (Table III). The habitats are arranged in order of extent of alterations by man, with the least disturbed at the top. The highest average blood isolation rates came from the least disturbed areas. The highest monthly maximal rickettsial isolation rates from blood and maximal prevalence rates of antibody per month were also obtained at Bukit Lanjan, the habitat least altered by activities of man. The lowest average blood isolation rate (6%) and the lowest monthly maximal rickettsial isolation and antibody prevalence rates were obtained at Bukit Mandol, the habitat most extensively and intensively altered by man. The intermediate habitats had intermediate rates. We caution anyone interpreting these observations, however, in terms of human disease, which seem to be associated with hyperendemic foci. Here we are not dealing with hyperendemicity from the standpoint of human disease, but present evidence of widespread endemicity from which hyperendemic foci may derive. Also, we have not yet identified the prevalent strains and do not know their infectivity to man.
449 human sera collected in a Land Dyak village were tested for antibodies to 11 arboviruses. Japanese encephalitis and dengue virus antibodies were particularly prevalent. The rates of infection with these viruses were estimated to be 5-2% per annum for Japanese encephalitis, 8-8% for dengue 1 and 4-3% for dengue 2. Chikungunya virus antibodies were quite common with an annual infection rate of the order of 5% per annum. Infections with other Group A and B and Bunyamwera group viruses were generally at a low level.
The first case of Sarcocystis infection is reported from West Malaysia. A cyst was seen as an incidental finding in a biopsy specimen from the larynx of the patient. The cyst and the cystozoites were of the small size with no evidence of cytophaneres or compartments.
Raffaelea variabilis is described as a new species in culture from Lannea grandis. It is distinguished by turbinate to cuneiform conidia measuring 4-16 times 2.5-7.5 mum, and compared and contrasted with established species. Trichocladium lobatum is described as a new species in culture with 1-2 euseptate spherical conidia, 19-22 mum diam., ornamented with flabelliform, spathulate or petaloid lobes 7 mum long. It is compared and contrasted with established Trichocladium species and representatives of Chlamydomyces, Histoplasma, Mycogone, Sepedonium and Thermomyces.
MeSH terms: Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification*; Malaysia
Paired sera from 101 Malaysian children aged up to 10 years and suffering from respiratory illnesses were examined serologically for evidence of respiratory viral infections. Of these children, 32.6% showed rising antibody titres for one or more of the test agents. Respiratory syncytial virus appeared to be the main respiratory pathogen involved, followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, and influenza A virus. These findings are generally similar to those reported by others in temperate and tropical countries.
Pathogenic leptospiras (1,424) isolated from natural waters and wet soils in Malaysia comprised 29 different serovars (synonym serotypes). All except two of the serovars had been found previously in Malaysia. The exceptional serovars were werrasingha, an Autumnalis serogroup member originally isolated in Ceylon, and a new serovar designated evansi. Serovar evansi had serological affinities with serovar ranarum which was isolated from the kidney of a frog in Iowa. The large variety of serovars found in jungle areas was consistent with similar previous findings of diverse serovar infections in troops who had operated in Malaysian jungles.
One hundred and ninety-nine children brought by 181 adults to a child health clinic based in a rural health sub-centre in Peninsular Malaysia are studied. It is noted that the families from which they come are relatively poor, with a large number of children, and that they are fairly highly motivated. Forty-four per cent of children attending the clinic at the time of the study are symptomatic indicating the need to organise the child health clinic on a "preventive-curative" basis. It is also noted that the young child is initially seen in early infancy but is lost to the clinic when he is older making it judicious to formulate immunization schedules that take this into account.
MeSH terms: Age Factors; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Child; Child Health Services/utilization*; Child, Preschool; China/ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Developing Countries; Family Characteristics; Humans; Income; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Malaysia; Malaysia/ethnology; Maternal-Child Health Centers; Rural Health*; Rural Population; Socioeconomic Factors; Time Factors
Long-term observations are presented on the behaviour of the siamang ape, Symphalangus syndactylus, in the lowland forest of central Malaya. The data were collected during two dry and three fruiting seasons between 1969 and 1973 inclusive on two groups with adjacent ranges; comparisons are made within and between sample periods, and between groups. The influence of weather on daily activities is considered. Food intake is analysed in terms of number of food trees, number of visits to these trees, and the cumulative time spent feeding on various food categories. Ranging behaviour is investigated in terms of distance travelled, area covered, and distribution of time and of food trees about the range. The occurrence of calling is described and compared with that of the white-handed gibbon in the same area. A discussion ensues on each of these aspects of behaviour in turn. Emphasis is laid on the similarity of behaviour of the two groups at any one time, and on the degree of their response to the fluctuations of environment variables. Finally, the application to siamang of ranging concepts currently used in animal behaviour is considered briefly.
MeSH terms: Animals; Behavior, Animal*; Feeding Behavior; Female; Fruit; Homing Behavior; Locomotion; Malaysia; Male; Play and Playthings; Rain; Rest; Seasons; Sleep; Social Behavior; Temperature; Time Factors; Trees; Vocalization, Animal; Hominidae*
All subspecies of black rats (Rattus rattus) used in the present study are characterized by having large and clear C-bands at the centromeric region. The appearance of the bands, however, is different in the subspecies. Chromosome pair No. 1 in Asian type black rats (2n=42), which are characterized by an acrocentric and subtelocentric polymorphism, showed C-band polymorphism. In Phillipine rats (R. rattus mindanensis) the pair was subtelocentric with C-bands, but in Malayan black rats (R. rattus diardii) it was usually acrocentric with C-bands. In Hong-Kong (R. rattus flavipectus) and Japanese black rats (R. rattus tanezumi) it was polymorphic with respect to the presence of acrocentrics with C-bands or subtelocentrics without C-bands. The other chromosomes pairs showed clear C-bands, but in Hong-Kong black rats the pairs No. 2 and 5 were polymorphic with and without C-bands. In Japanese black rats, 6 chromosome pairs (No. 3, 4, 7, 9, 11 and 13) were polymorphic in regard to presence and absence of C-bands, but the other 5 chromosome pairs (No. 2, 5, 6, 8 and 10) showed always absence of C-bands. Only pair No. 12 usually showed C-bands. C-bands in small metacentric pairs (No. 14 to 20) in Asian type black rats generally large in size, but those in the Oceanian (2n=38) and Ceylon type black rats (2n=40) were small. In the hybrids between Asian and Oceanian type rats, heteromorphic C-bands, one large and the other small, were observed. Based on the consideration of karyotype evolution in the black rats, the C-band is suggested to have a tendency toward the diminution as far as the related species are concerned.
MeSH terms: Animals; Australia; Biological Evolution; Genetics, Population; Hong Kong; Hybridization, Genetic; India; Iran; Japan; Karyotyping; Malaysia; North America; Philippines; Polymorphism, Genetic; Species Specificity; Sri Lanka; Genetic Variation*; Rats*