1. Density of nests, population number, biomass, nitrogen and carbon content, calorific content and respiration rate of termites were studied at Pasoh Forest, West Malaysia mainly with four dominant species of epigeous nest builders, Macrotermes carbonarius, Dicuspiditermes nemorosus type-a, type-b and Homallotermes foraminifer, to reveal their role in the ecosystem. 2. The density of nests or mounds was 15-41/ha in M. carbonarius, 60-110/ha in the two types of D. nemorosus and 85-165/ha in H. foraminifer. 3. The population number per nest or mound was about 88,000 in M. carbonarius, 45,000 in D. nemorosus type-a, 47,000 in D. nemorosus type-b and 13,000 in H. foraminifer. The population number per hectare was about 1.8x10(6) for M. carbonarius, 4.3x10(6) for D. nemorosus type-a, 5.2x10(6) for D. nemorosus type-b and 2.1x10(6) for H. foraminifer. 4. The ratio in number of workers to soldiers was 6.4 for M. carbonarius, 19.0 for D. nemorosus type-a, 23.1 for D. nemorosus type-b and 8.9 for H. foraminifer. The ratio in number of adults (workers plus soldiers) to larvae was 1.4 for M. carbonarius, 0.59 for D. nemorosus type-a, 1.76 for D. nemorosus type-b and 3.84 for H. foraminifer. 5. The number of adults per nest of D. nemorosus type-a, type-b and H. foraminifer was linearly correlated with the weight of nest on the log-log coordinates. 6. The ratio of dry body weight to live weight was 0.24-0.30 for workers, 0.19-0.29 for soldiers and 0.15-0.22 for larvae. 7. The ash content of termite body was 26-66% for workers, 2-24% for soldiers and 1-4% for larvae. 8. The carbon content ranged from 45% to 66% of ash-free dry weight and the nitrogen content from 5.6% to 12.6%. 9. The mean calorific value of termite body was 5.3 gcal/mg in workers and soldiers on an ash-free weight basis, but was greater in nymphs and winged reproductives in the nest (6.7-6.9 gcal/mg) owing probably to their large fat storage. 10. The relation of CO2 evolution rate to temperature in these termites was similar to what has been found in other insects. 11. The total biomass of the four termite species was estimated at 6.01 kg ash-free dry weight/ha, equivalent to 0.55 kg nitrogen/ha and 3.09 kg carbon/ha. 12. The role of the fungi cultivated by M. carbonarius on their fungus combs was discussed in relation to the nutrition of termites and the decomposition of leaf-litter with special reference to their nitrogen metabolism. The high nitrogen content of fungus spherules growing on fungus combs seemed to have an important bearing on the nutrition of termites. 13. It was concluded that the termites played a very important role in the organic matter decomposition cycle of Pasoh Forest.
The Land and Sea Dayaks of Sarawak were surveyed for several erythrocyte enzymes. The gene frequency of 6PGDC in 132 Land Dayaks and 127 Sea Dayaks were 0.045 and 0.047, respectively. The gene frequency of PGM1-1 IN 285 Land Dayks and 240 Sea Dayaks were 0.716 and 0.779, respectively. The ADA2 gene frequency in 283 Land Dayaks and 188 Sea Dayaks were 0.154 and 0.090. ADA 5-1 was found once in the Land Dayaks and once in the Sea Dayaks. AK 2-1 was found once in 221 Sea Dayaks but not in any of 270 Land Dayaks. No PHI, LDH or CA variants were found among the Land or Sea Dayaks.
In vivo chloroquine resistance surveys, which allowed for detection of late recrudescing RI resistance, were conducted in three regions of Peninsular Malaysia, which were previously not recognized as having appreciable drug resistance. Among the 485 Plasmodium falciparum infections tested resistance rates ranged locally from 20% to 67% in those with parasitaemias over 1,000 per mm3, and 5% to 59% in all parasitaemias. The region found to have the most serious resistance was western Pahang. In one study a combination of chloroquine and pyrimethamine proved no more efficacious than chloroquine alone. Most of the resistance encountered was the late recrudescing RI type. There was no apparent correlation between drug resistance and Anopheles balabacensis as this species was not found despite intensive collections in two of the three main regions. There was no evidence of resistance among the 222 P. vivax and 35 P. malariae infections also tested.
MeSH terms: Child; Chloroquine/pharmacology*; Drug Evaluation; Drug Resistance, Microbial*; Drug Therapy, Combination; Humans; Malaysia; Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects*; Plasmodium malariae/drug effects; Plasmodium vivax/drug effects; Pyrimethamine/pharmacology*
Areca cattechu Linn is commonly known as areca nut or betel nut. It is a very widely cultivated plant in eastern countries like India, Bangladesh, Ceylon, Malaya, the Philippines and Japan. The importance of this nut is due to its use for chewing purposes. It had an important place as a pharmaceutical in Ayurveda--the ancient Indian system of medicine--also in the Chinese medicinal practices. The pharmaceutical importance of areca nut is due to the presence of an alkaloid, arecoline. Synthetic arecoline hydrobromide is also shown to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Chewing of "betel quid" or areca nut is a typical oriental habit. Betel quid comprises betel leaf, areca nut, catechu, lime and sometimes also tobacco. It is shown that there exists a correlationship between betel quid or areca nut chewing habit and oral cancer. A number of investigators have been able to produce cellular changes such as leukoplakia by application of betel quid or areca nut extract to the buccal mucosa of different animal.