Oxalacetate and glyoxylate are each weak inhibitors of NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (threo-DS-isocitrate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating), EC 220.127.116.11)9 Together, however, they act in a concerted manner and strongly inhibit the enzyme. The rates of formation and dissociation of the enzyme inhibitor complex, and the rate of formation and the stability of the aldol condensation product of oxalacetate and glyoxylate, oxalomalate, were examined. The data obtained do not support the often suggested possibility that oxalomalate, per se, formed non-enzymatically in isocitrate dehydrogenase assay mixtures containing oxalacetate and glyoxylate, is responsible for the observed inhibition of the enzyme. Rather, the data presented in this communication suggest that oxalacetate binds to the enzyme first, and that the subsequent binding of glyoxylate leads to the formation of a catalytically inactive enzyme-inhibitor complex.
Preliminary findings of a survey on the influences of institutional facilities on mothers in the post-partum period in hospital that affect breast-feeding were reported. It was observed that although advice on breast-feeding is now given, there is a conflict between advice and practice so that the advice has been ritualistic. There is a lack of follow-up on advice, and the mother is not helped and encouraged to breast-feed and to overcome her initial disappointment and difficulties. It was also pointed out that the artificial milk-food industry exercises a negative influence through maternity ward staff by provision of milk samples to maternity units and by visits of their sales staff to the mothers. It was emphasised that the hospital factor could be an important cause of failure of the mother to breast-feed.
MeSH terms: Breast; Breast Feeding; Industry; Milk; Mothers; Exercise; Postpartum Period
The combination of Hb E,alpha-thalassaemia and Hb CoSp was found in a 20-year-old female Malay who presented with a moderately severe haemolytic anaemia. The findings in the patient and her family from which this diagnosis was arrived at are discussed. Although this is the first report of this condition in this country it is pointed out that one may see more such cases in the future if one is aware of this condition since Hb E, alpha-thalassaemia and Hb CoSp all occur at significant frequencies in this country.
A study was carried out of 332 babies suffering from severe neonatal jaundice who were admitted to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia. Of the 332 neonates, 51 were premature and 281 were full-term babies, 178 (110 Chinese, 58 Malay, 9 Indian and 1 European-Pakistani) had bilirubin levels of 20 mg% or higher, requiring exchange blood transfusion. Of the Chinese neonates, 23 (20.9%) had G6PD deficiency, 9 (8.2%) had Hb Bart's and 2 (1.8%) had an abnormal haemoglobin, one Hb Q and one fetal variant. Among the Malay infants, 10 (17.2%) had G6PD deficiency, 7 (12.1%) had Hb Bart's and 10 (17.2%) had abnormal haemoglobins (four had Hb E trait, one had Hb K and Bart's in addition to Hb E, three had Hb CoSp with Hb Bart's, one had Hb Q and one Hb Tak). One of the nine Indian neonates had G6PD deficiency and one had Hb S trait. The one European-Pakistani baby was a carrier of Hb D Punjab. In addition to G6PD deficiency, abnormal haemoglobins seem to have contributed to the high incidence of severe neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. The mean activities of GP, GR and GR after stimulation with FAD were higher, while the mean activity of PK and mean level of reduced glutathione were lower than in normal cord bloods. The percent increase of GR after FAD stimulation was significantly lower; fewer in this group had increases above 20% than in normal cord blood. The possible significance of the findings is discussed.
A case of haemoglobin H (HbH) disease associated with pregnancy is presented and discussed in the light of reports in the literature. The variable symptomatology is commented upon, although mild to moderate chronic haemolytic anaemia seems to be a constant feature. The roles of folic acid supplements and of splenectomy; the avoidance of oxidant drugs, and the mode of inheritance in HbH disease are briefly commented upon. Available reports indicate that HbH disease probably has no adverse effect on pregnancy. However, the association of the two conditions is uncommon, and reports are too few, therefore, to allow definite conclusions on the outcome in all instances.
Rickettsia tsutsugamushi isolations were attempted from blood samples obtained from rats captured in four adjacent habitats near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Antibody surveys were also made. Rickettsial infections were most frequent in rats captured in the forest and in lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica) and least frequent in the most extensively disturbed habitat, an Orang Asli (aborigine) village. Forest rats such as Rattus sabanus (31%), as well as rats in the subgenus R. (Rattus), i.e. R. tiomanicus (26%) and R. argentiventer (35%) had frequent active infections. The house rat R. exulans had less frequent infections (15%). Frequency of antibody occurrence followed a similar pattern. No marked seasonal differences in the frequency of infections could be detected during the 18-month study.
Examination of naturally infected felids and viverrids in Malaysia confirmed previously published records which indicated that P. westermani occurred only in felid cats. Felis planiceps and F. temnickli were reported as new host records. Analysis of stomach contents revealed no crab remains in either family of cats, but confirmed that felids were strictly carnivorous while viverrids were often omnivorous. In feeding experiments, only viverrids ate the host crabs Potomiscus johorensis and Parathelphusa maculata. The probable transmission of P. westermani to felids via paratenic hosts was discussed.
The trait condition for hemoglobin Tak, was found in a 4-day old newborn Malay who suffered from severe neonatal jaundice. The beta chain of the abnormal hemoglobin was elongated by 11 residues at the C-terminus and had the same structure as reported for Hb Tak. The mother was heterozygous for this abnormal hemoglobin, the father was normal. The mother and child, 4 years later, did not show clinical or hematological symptoms except definitely increased resistance of their erythrocytes to hypotonic saline solutions and slight anisopoikilocytosis. The abnormal gene in the two reported Thai families and in our Malay family may have the same origin.
This study examines twenty-four cases of amok, believed the largest number of cases ever collected. They were observed in Sarawak, East Malaysia. They occurred in all indigenous groups in Sarawak, excluding the Chinese, such as Malay, Sea Dayak, Land Dayak, Kayan, Punan and Melanau at frequencies more or less following the proportion of these groups in the total population. No differences were found according to religion, the Malay being Muslim and the other groups either predominantly Christian like the Iban or animistic. Only slight diminution in the frequency was observed from 1954 to 1968. The education level of the amok runners was much lower than that of the average population. The weapons used were those immediately at hand be it parang (short sword), ax, sticks, knives, guns, bare hands or a lorry. The classical four stages were largely present: (a) brooding and withdrawal, (b) homicidal paroxysm, (c) continuation of homicidal behaviour until killed, restrained or falling into stupor of exhaustion, (d) complete or partial amnesia. While in 14 no motive could be ascertained, insult, jealousy and paranoid ideation was present in the others. Both family history of mental illness and personal psychiatric history were predominant. All cases fell into accepted diagnostic categories from organic and endogenous psychosis to neurosis and behaviour disorder.
Supernumerary chromosomes have been examined in 352 black rats, covering three geographic variants, by use of conventional and C-band staining techniques. Metacentric supernumerary chromosomes, one to three in number, were found in Malayan black rats (Rattus rattus diardii), with 2n=42, in Indian black rats (R. rattus rufescens), with 2n=38, and in Ceylonese black rats (R. rattus kandianus), with 2n=40. The supernumeraries had similar morphology and stained heavily along their entire length by C-band staining. These findings suggested that the supernumeraries had originally developed in the Asian-type black rats and then were sequentially transmitted to the Ceylonese and Oceanian-type black rats, probably in southwestern Asia. A subtelocentric supernumerary chromosome found in one Japanese black rat seemed to have developed independently from the above metacentric supernumeraries.
MeSH terms: Age Factors; Asia; Asia, Southeastern; Contraception Behavior; Contraceptives, Oral; Developing Countries; Family Planning Services; Health Planning*; Intrauterine Devices; Malaysia; Parity; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Population Control; Poverty; Public Policy; Sterilization, Tubal; Vasectomy; Public Sector