A cross-sectional study was conducted in four Orang Asli settlements, in the district of Kuala Langat, to determine the knowledge and practice associated with diarrhoeal disease among the Orang asli children (0-5 years). It was seen that the social and environmental factors of the settlements were poor. Only 26% of the households had sanitary latrines and 36% had access to safer water supplies. Ninety-five percent of them had monthly income below the national poverty line. The diarrhoeal incidence was high, ie 240/1000 and the most affected were the older children in the age group of 49 - 60 months. Knowledge of diarrhoeal disease was poor. But the majority (84.2%) knew that breast feeding is the best milk for the child in order to avoid diarrhoeal disease.
MeSH terms: Breast; Breast Feeding; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diarrhea; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Milk; Poverty; Water; Water Supply; Incidence; Knowledge
Stop the bleeding - digital pressure, packing. Once the bleeding has stopped, performed coagulation studies. Refer to an ENT surgeon for opinion particularly as you may be dealing with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
MeSH terms: Airway Obstruction; Epistaxis; Family Practice
A retrospective study of 100 patients with acute right upper quadrant pain was performed in order to indicate the diagnostic role of ultrasound including the diagnostic role of ultrasound including guided percutaneous procedures in the evaluation of such cases at the General Hospital Kota Bharu (GH, KB). In the majority of these patients the leading clinical consideration was acute cholecystitis. In all the patients the initial sonographic diagnoses were compared with the final diagnoses. In 35 patients (35%) biliary pathology was diagnosed. In this group the conographic correlation was good. In 65 patients (65%) the symptoms were due to non-biliary pathology. In this group ultrasound detected the actual site of pathology in 28%. Ultrasonography which can image multiple organs rapidly is a useful initial screening procedure in patients presenting with acute right upper quadrant pain because it can detect the actual size of pathology in about two-thirds of the cases.
The reasons for referral of 189 patients referred to the Primary Care Out-patient Clinics, University Hospital Kuala Lumpur, were studied. 55.6% of them were from private general practitioners. 51.0% of the referrals were for evaluation of symptoms and 46.5% were for management of diseases. The profile of the referrals helps in curriculum planning of Primary Care Medicine. Other applications of the results are discussed.
MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Hospitals; Humans; Malaysia; Outpatients; Primary Health Care; Referral and Consultation
The structure and organization of aquatic arthropod communities in Nepenthes ampullaria pitchers were studied at two sites (M in Malacca and K in Kuching) in Malaysia. The communities consisted mainly of aquatic dipteran larvae. Community M was dominated by a filter feeder, Tripteroides tenax, which reached a high density despite a strongly aggregated distribution. Community K had five trophic groups: carrion feeders, filter feeders, detritus feeders, nipping predators and hooking predators, each including multiple species. The summed density of filter feeders in Community K remained much below the level attained by filter feeders in Community M. Niche differentiation within each trophic group with regard to pitcher age and feeding behaviour was not sufficient to allow species coexistence through niche separation alone. Aggregated distributions directly reduced interspecific encounters. Nevertheless, species belonging to the same trophic group commonly shared the same pitcher, because of high occurrence probabilities of dominant species and positive associations between some taxa (due mainly to similar occupancies by pitcher age). Predator coexistence in Community K may have been facilitated by self-limitation of the large predators through intraspecific cannibalism strengthened by aggregation. Prey coexistence, on the other hand, may have relied more on population suppression by predation, especially the selective removal of old instar Tripteroides.
A five-week-old infant presented with infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. He devel-oped an early CNS and bone marrow relapse despite intensive treatment. This paper discusses infantile leukaemia and its treatment.
A questionnaire survey of student nurses and nurses at a premier hospital in Malaysia reveals that the majority of nurses support the use of corporal punishment on schoolchil-dren. Malay nurses who had received corporal punishment were more likely to endorse corporal punishment than those who had not received it. The number of non-Malay nurses was too small for comment. These findings reveal that nurses need to re-examine their attitudes and their training with respect to child discipline and child rearing practices. Nurses need to be educated on the cycle of violence and the root causes of child abuse in the community. Nurses need to change their attitudes to violence on children and to condemn any such acts, whether it be in the home or at school.