This article examines the fat and fibre intakes of Malaysian adults and highlights discrepancies and practical limitations if these intakes are to match the levels for these nutrients advocated in the World Health Organisation (WHO) and American Heart Association (AHA) â€˜diet modelsâ€™. Local data on food consumption showed that the total fat intakes amongst Malaysian adults, contrary to common perception, were not high and the mean values obtained fell within the range of 40-66g or 22-26% kcal. As such, the dietary target of 30% kcal total fat or its intermediate target of 30-35% kcal, advocated by WHO and AHA mainly to address the problem of a high consumption of dietary fats in western populations, should not be adopted indiscriminately by Malaysians. Dietary fatty acid (FA) analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with the use of food composition tables, showed that the typical Malaysian diet prepared with palm olein or palm olein-groundnut oil blends as cooking oil contained 3.2-4.0% kcal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly as the w-6 linoleic acid, which is also the predominant essential fatty acid (EFA) in humans. This level of linoleic acid, with an Ï‰-6/ Ï‰--3 FA ratio approximating 10, is adequate for basal PUPA and EFA needs but fell short of the 4-10% kcal linoleic acid recommended by WHO (1993) to counter the effects of the cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFA). This raised upper limit of 10% kcal linoleic acid (previously 7% kcal), which equals the level of PUFA implied in the AHA diet model, appears unnecessarily high considering that the cholesterol-lowering potential of linoleic acid is maximum at about 6% kcal, while the health hazards associated with long-term high intakes of PUPA have never been completely dismissed. The new WHO lower limit for dietary linoleic acid (4% kcal) would have a controversial impact of raising the previous minimal 3% kcal EFA to above 4% kcal (linoleic + alpha-linolenic acids). Similarly, the WHO recommendation for total dietary fibre of 27-40g (equivalent to a daily combined intake of 400g of vegetables and fruits, 30g of which should come from pulses) appears at present, too high a dietary target for the average Malaysian adult whose habitual daily diet was estimated to contain about 180g of vegetables plus fruits, providing only about 13-16g total dietary fibre. Appropriately, an expert panel on Malaysian Dietary Guidelines has recommended instead, 20-30% kcal total fat containing 3-7% kcal PUFA, and 20-30g total dietary fibre for the local population.
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is recognised as an important public health problem in Malaysia. Hyperlipidaemia is one of the main risk factors related to CHD. The mainstay of treatment is diet therapy which should be maintained even if drug treatment is indicated. Since dietitians are the primary providers of dietary treatment to hyperlipidaemic patients, this retrospective study attempts to report the dietary approaches and methodologies adopted by Malaysian dietitians in managing their patients. A postal questionnaire covering various aspects of dietary management of hyperlipidaemia were sent to 47 dietitians practicing in private and government hospitals. A response rate of 53 % was elicited. The survey found that there was a disparity amongst the respondents in the approach to the dietary management of hyperlipidaemia in Malaysia. This was largely due to the absence of a standardised dietary protocol for general lipid lowering in patients with hyperlipidaemia.
Study site: Private and public hospitals in Malaysia
The objective of this study was to determine the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors among CHD patients in the Institut Jantung Negara (National Heart Institute), Kuala Lumpur. All patients admitted for CHD during the study period between 5th May 1997 and 24th May 1997 were included in the study. A total of 105 patients were interviewed by using a pretested questionnaire. Four CHD risk factors were included in the study, namely dietary intake, smoking habit, alcohol intake and physical activity. The majority of the patients (92.4%) were above 45 years old. Most of them (85.7%) had at least one chronic health problem such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension before admission into IJN. Their average total blood cholesterol was 6.1 Â± 1.3 mmol/L and 75.2% were hypercholesteromic (â‰¥ 5.2 mmol/L). Mean systolic blood pressure was 151.2 Â± 27.5 mmHg. The mean body mass index of the patients was 25.9 Â± 3.9 kg/m2 and 58.1% were overweight (BMI â‰¥ 25.0). Almost half of the patients (49.6%) had smoked before but only 8.6% still smoke. Out of the 56 non-Muslim patients, 9 of them (16.1%) consumed alcoholic drinks on a regular basis. Most of the patients reported walking as the only form of exercise that they do. Most of the patients consume rice, vegetables and fruits almost daily. This study indicated significant relationships between (i) knowledge level and attitude towards CHD risk factors (r = 0.624, p < 0.001), (ii) knowledge level and modifying practices related to CHD risk factors (r = 0.316, p < 0.01) and (iii) attitude and modifying practices (r = 0.234, p
An assessment of the daily intake of major nutrients among 409 adults (males and females aged between 18-60 years, normal body mass index) residing in four regions in Malaysia was carried out as part of a major study on energy requirement. Subjects from both urban and rural areas completed a 3-day food record during the study. Mean energy intake among the men and women were 9.05 Â± 2.21 MJ/day (2163 kcal/day) and 7.19 Â± 1.60 MJ/day (1718 kcal/day) respectively, corresponding to 90% of the Malaysian RDA. A mean of 14% of the total energy was derived from protein, 23% from fat and 63% from carbohydrate. Energy intake amongst male subjects in the rural area (8.47 MJ/day, 2024 kcal) was significantly lower than their urban counterparts (9.52 MJ/day, 2275 kcal). There was no difference in mean energy intake in both the urban (7. 19 MJ/day, 1718 kcal) as well as rural women (7.16 MJ/day, 1711 kcal) corresponding to 86% of the RDA. The distribution of nutrients to the total energy intake amongst rural subjects were 13% for protein in both males and females, 65% for carbohydrate in males and 66% in females and 19% for fat in males and 21% for females. In the urban male and female subjects, the distribution of protein, carbohydrate and fat to the total energy intake were 14%, 55% and 29% and 30% respectively. The rural subjects showed a poorer mean intake of vitamins and minerals compared to the urban subjects. The diets of the male subjects in the rural area were deficient, less than two-third RDA in calcium, riboflavin and niacin. Calcium and iron intakes were less than two-third RDA in both the rural as well as the urban women. The rural women also had a poor intake of vitamin A and niacin. Overall, only protein and vitamin C intake met the RDA in most subjects from rural and urban areas.
MeSH terms: Adult; Ascorbic Acid; Energy Intake; Carbohydrates; Diet; Female; Humans; Iron; Malaysia; Male; Minerals; Niacin; Nutritional Requirements; Riboflavin; Vitamin A; Vitamins; Body Mass Index
Fasting serum specimens from (a) 217 male and 46 female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), aged 35-75 years, who had undergone angioplasty (PTCA) / coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and (b) 160 apparently healthy controls (106 males, 54 females, aged 30-75 years), were assessed for serum lipid profile. Both sex and ethnicity significantly influenced the levels of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC); in the controls, females had higher HDLC levels than males (46.7 mg/dl vs 38.5 mg/dl, p
Congenital varicella syndrome is a rare outcome of early primary maternal varicella zoster infection. The neuromuscular anomalies, skeletal defects and skin lesions of such a case are described in our case report. The diagnosis of congenital varicella syndrome, the prenatal risk and management of primary maternal varicella infection in pregnancy are also discussed.
Nesidioblastosis is a rare metabolic disease characterised by inappropriate insulin secretion often associated with life-threatening hypoglycaemia. While severe cases present in the newborn period, patients have been described later in infancy. Familial cases suggest an autosomal recessive trait, and recently mutations in the sulphonlurea receptor gene, possibly a regulator of insulin secretion, have been identified and associated with disease expression. We report a twin boy who developed normally until the age of six months when he was noted to regress. The boy is the older twin born to non-consanguinous parents. He presented to a hospital first at the age of 13 months with fever and generalised seizures. Low blood glucose was noted, but he recovered easily and was able to maintain euglycaemia during a 48-hour period of observation. Microcephaly and developmental delay were documented and anticonvulsant therapy was started. At 18 months, low blood glucose with high C-peptide was documented during reevaluation. Follow-ing a short trial of subcutaneous long-acting somatostatin analogue, the child was subjected to near-total pancreatectomy. The histology revealed findings consistent with nesidioblastosis. The child's condition improved but he remained significantly delayed This case emphasises the importance of recognising and treating hypoglycaemia early to avoid irreversible brain damage. It is interesting to note that the twin brother has always been well and is developmentally normal. Further studies to identify the inheritance pattern in the family would be of great interest.
A sample of 204 handicapped children below 12 years of age consisting of 121(59.3%) males and 83 (40.7%) females who were classified into various types of mental and physical handicaps, were surveyed in April and May 1996. The majority of those with mental handicaps were Down Syndrome while those with cerebral palsy were the mostfrequent cause of physical handicaps. A structured questionnaire was used for interviewing the children parents to evaluate their attitude towards their handicapped children. The majority of the parents expressed their opinions that having handicapped children was not a burden to them although these children had to be given more attention. However, a significant minority felt that the child would be afinancial burden to the family and that he/she would restrict the social life of the family. The majority of the children were sent to school, as parents felt it was their duty to do so. For those children not attending school, the majority of parents felt that the children would not benefit by going. The others could not do so because offinancial constraints or because of the distance between home and school. For these children, provid-ing hostel facilities in a boarding school could be the answer. This study shows that parental love and support plays a major role in ensuring optimal growth and development of a handicapped child
MeSH terms: Attention; Attitude; Cerebral Palsy; Child; Down Syndrome; Emotions; Female; Humans; Love; Male; Parents; Surveys and Questionnaires; Disabled Children; Growth and Development
Two active interventions were carried out in order to encourage breast feeding of low birth weight (LBW) neonates who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Universiti Sains Malaysia. These were the establishment of (a) an effective transport system for conveying expressed breast milk (EBM) from the motherk home to the neonatal intensive care unit and (b) providing rooming-infacilities in the neonatal ward. The EBM was transported by a male health assistant, by the parents themselves or by the local bus company. A total of 473 babies were admitted from April 1994 to September 1995. Thirty-three babies weighed between 540-1000g and 440 were between 1001-2000g. A total of 226 (47.8%) babies were given mixed formula (less than 20% of daily needs) and EBM feeds (Group A) and 247 (52.2%) were given only formula feeds (Group B). A total of 79 babies died of which 5 were in Group A and 74 were in group B. (P value is 0.00). In Group A, 45 babies had clinical sepsis, 9 of whom were blood culture positive. Four of these babies died. In group B, out of 108 babies with clinical sepsis 36 were blood culture positive. 29 died because of the sepsis This study shows that by providing an effective transport system for breast milk expressed at home and the availability of roomingfacilities in the neonatal ward a significant number of LBW babies admitted to the NICU continue to receive their mothers' milk. The incidence of nosocomial sepsis and the over all mortality due to sepsis was significantly higher in those on full formulafeeding compared to those given mixed formula and expressed breast milk.
Objective: The clinical characteristics and out-come offebrile convulsions in children admitted to the University Hospital in Kubang Kerian were analysed in this retrospective study.
Method: The medical records of 244 children aged between 6 months to 5 years who presented with their first convulsions between January 1989 to December 1990 were reviewed. Patients were followed till one year after their first febrile convulsions.
Results: The mean age of presentation was 18.26 (s.d. 11.83) months. One hundred and thirty (54.5%) were males. Complex febrile convulsions were noted in 47.5% and simple febrile convulsions in 52.5%. Seventy-two children (29.5%) were less than one year old at the time offirst febrile convulsions. A family history offebrile convulsions was significantly higher in the complexfebrile convulsions group. Ten children (4.1%) presented with prolonged first febrile convulsions. Data on 117 children on follow-up were available for analysis. Recurrence of febrile convulsions occurred in fifty children (46.7%) with mean interval of 6.53 (s.d. 5.25) months. There was significant difference in children who presented with febrile convulsions at age of less than one year old and having family history offebrile convulsions with regard to recurrence. Three children developed epilepsy at a mean age of 31.56 months. Identifiable causes of febrile convulsions were upper respiratory infection, presumed viral infection (fever with rashes) and acute gastro-enteritis. Laboratory investiga-tions that were done were not helpful.
Conclusions: Children with a family history of febrile convulsions were more likely to develop complex febrile convulsions. Routine investi-gations were rarely helpful. The recurrence rate is significantly influenced by the age of presentation and family history of febrile convulsions in siblings or either parent. The types offebrile convulsions did not significantly influence the recurrent rate.
Milk lipids play an important role in the early nutrition of an infant's life. A study was undertaken to investigate the total lipid content of milk obtained from urban, exclusively breastfeeding Malaysian mothers offill term infants. Results from approximately 600 samples analysed using a commercial kit [MerckotestO] , showed that the total lipid concentration was lowest in colostrum [1.9 + 0.1 g/dl J, however this value increased gradually with days of lactation and attained a maximum concentration of 3.1 ± 0.1 g/dl during the mature milk stage. This agrees with results from other studies that the total lipid content is indeed influenced by the stage of lactation. The effect of socioeconomic factors such as income and parity on the milk lipids was also investi-gated and the results revealed that the above factors had no significant influence on the total lipid content of Malaysian mother 's milk obtained during all three stages of lactation studied [colostrum, transitional and mature milk] . However; ethnicity showed significant influence during the mature but not in the early [colostrum and transitional] stage of lactation. This however, is not filly explained by this study. As a whole, this study suggests that the human breast, through a mechanism that is ill understood, maintains cm optimal level of total lipid in milk despite their differing cultural and genetic background. It is hoped that such scientific evidence will instil more confidence among breastfeeding mothers in this fast developing cosmopolitan nation.
This study was conducted to determine the health status of aboriginal ("Orang Asli') children aged 0-12 years in Post Brooke, Gua Musang, Kelantan. This is done by appraising the environmental status, patterns of illnesses including communicable diseases and usage of health resources. Six villages were selected randomly from 12 villages in the area; 179 families were interviewed, 200 under-12-year-olds were examined and their blood samples taken for haemoglobin (HB) estimation as well as malarial screening. Water supply through Gravity Feed System (GFS) was used by 134 families (70.2%) whilst the rest obtained water direct from the river for the purpose. Only 63.6% of families boiled their drinking water 56.4% families threw rubbish indiscriminately, while 82.1% used the river as their toilets. Eighty-seven percent of the families saw the village medicine man first when ill. Forty (22.2%) children had had serious illnesses including malaria and 24 were admitted to hospitals. 15% of the children had never been immunized. A total of 102 (51%) children were pale and 90 (45%) had brown hair. Eighty nine (44.5%) of the children were anaemic (Hb < 10 gm/di). Sixty-nine children (34%) had dental caries. Forty-two (21%) had distended abdomen and 37 (18.5%) had hepatomegaly. Out of 84 stool samples examined, 67 (79.8%) had helminthic ova. Of all families, 47.1% gave a past history of at least one baby among their children who had died due to one reason or another. The health status of this community (especially children) was low that it warrants special attention.
MeSH terms: Abdomen; Attention; Child; Communicable Diseases; Dental Caries; Gravitation; Hair; Health Resources; Health Status; Hemoglobins; Hepatomegaly; Humans; Immunization; Infant; Malaria; Male; Water Supply; Rivers; Drinking Water
Various studies conducted in Indonesia have shown that administration of Vitamin A to pre-school children had decreased the mortality and morbidity rates among them. In the first study conducted in the province of Acheh in North Sumatra, a twice yearly high dose of vitamin A led to a 34% decrease in mortality. In a second study in Bogor, conducted by fortifying the nutritional additive MSG with vitamin A and distributing the product in a designated area, the mortality rate among preschool children was 45% less than in a control area. In the third study also conducted in Bogor, where vitamin A was given to lactating women 2 weeks after giving birth and then directly to the infants themselves after 5 months of age, the mortality rate was 38% lower. The prevalences of respiratory and diarrhoeal infections were statistically lower than in the control gorups. Another study on preschool children showed a two-fold increase of anti TT IgG on primary immunisation against tetanus when compared to a control group and a four-fold increase with a secondary immunisation. Other studies conducted in Bogor and other parts of the world have showed that smaller doses given more often are more effective than bigger doses given less often.
The advantages and benefits of breastfeeding and the scientific basis for them are already well-documented and made known to the health and related professions, policy makers as well as the lay public. The role of breastfeeding in child survival, protection, growth and development has been the focus of several international deliberations, including the Convention of the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding (August 1990) and The World Summit for Children (October 1990). Follow-ing the World Summit, our Prime Minister, on 18 July 1991, signed the World Declaration for Child Survival, Protection and Development. (Copied from article).
MeSH terms: Administrative Personnel; Breast Feeding; Child; Clergy; Humans; Science; Growth and Development; Biological Processes; Physiological Processes
We report a rare case of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver in a six-year-old girl who at presentation, had fever, right hypochondrium pain and hepatomegaly. The diagnosis was clinched by fine needle aspiration cytology and was subsequently reconfirmed by histopathological examination of the resected tumour. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given because primary resection was deemed not possible. The patient underwent a successful extensive hepatectomy followed by continuation chemotherapy
MeSH terms: Bile Duct Neoplasms; Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic; Female; Hepatectomy; Hepatomegaly; Humans; Liver Neoplasms; Pain; Sarcoma; Biopsy, Fine-Needle
This study was conducted to identify factors which influence the safety of children in day-care centres and home-based nurseries in the state of Kelantan. A total of 20 registered day care centres (DCC) and 40 home-based nurseries (IIBN) identified in 3 districts in the state were included in the study. Problems identified which could affect the safety of children cared-for in these nurseries were inadequate and unsafe facilities, inappropriate location of nurseries, lack of trained workers and their ignorance of necessary safety measures.
MeSH terms: Child; Day Care, Medical; Humans; Infant; Nurseries; Safety; Nurses, Community Health
Twelve premature infants were studied prospectively to determine the extent and pattern of bacterial contamination in nasogastric tube (NGT) milk residues. Of the 60 NGT milk residue samples cultured, 49 (82%) had bacterial isolates; 34 (69%) samples with multiple organisms. Gram negative organisms were the predominant species; Klebsiella spp. (32%), Pseudomonas spp. (16%), Acinetobacter spp. (14%), Enterobacter spp. (11%) and Escherichia coli (11%). The antibiograms of these organisms indicated the environment as the main source of bacteria for the NGT colonisation. However, the relation-ship of high rates of isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in NGT milk residues and the risks of infection to these infants is unclear and needs further evaluation.
In Malaysia, an estimated 50 children per annum suffering from a variety of haematological and inherited disorders would benefit from bone marrow or stem cell trans-plantation. By mendelian inheritance 25% of these children would be able to find a sibling who is a matched histocompatible donor. For the remaining 75% to have a chance at survival, search from another source would have to be made. This could mean a mismatched non-sibling related donor or a matched unrelated donor. We studied the chance of a Malaysian patient finding a matched sibling donor and a matched unrelated donor. Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) data from patients and their siblings were analysed. The HLA data were matched against the largest Asian bone marrow donor registry in Taiwan. 95% of the 138,744 donors in this registry come from Taiwanese Hokkien ancestry.
Percutaneous epiphysiodesis for arresting growth is a useful method for equalising moderate lower limb-length discrepancy. This paper reviews the result of this procedure performed at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Glasgowfrom 1989 to 1993. There were 8 children (5 girls and 3 boys) ranging in age (chronological) from 10 years 3 months to 13 years 3 months. Limb-length discrepancies (LLD) at the time of surgery were between 2.5 cm to 5.5 cm. The predicted LLD at maturity was obtained using the Moseleys graph. This ranged from 3.9 cm to 8.3 cm. The cause of discrepancy were hemihypertrophy (5), neurofibromatosis (1), AV malformation (1) and neonatal osteomyelitis (1). Bone age in 3 patients corresponded to their chronological age. In 2 patients their bone age were less than their chronological age by 1 year. In the remaining 3 patients their bone were less than their chronological age by 1 to 3 years. All patients had percutaneous epiphysiodesis of both the distal femur and proximal tibia. All patients except one had afinal LLD of 1 cm or less. There were 2 unsatisfactory results: one girl had a valgus knee due to asymmetric physeal closure. Another boy had a final LLD of 3.3 cm as the procedure was done near skeletal maturity. This technique is useful even with LLD greater than 5 cm in children whose predicted height is above average. The difference between chronological age and bone age ranged from I to 3 years.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community acquired infections, particularly pneumonia, acute otitis media, sinusitis and exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Together with Haemophilus influenzae, it is an important cause of childhood meningitis. It is also a major cause of bacterial meningitis among adults. The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics in recent years has complicated the management of pneumococcal infections world-wide'. In some areas, penicillin resistant strains have become the predominant pneumococcal isolates2. Multiply resistant strains and those resistant to second and third generation cephalosporins are also increasingly reported'. Treatment of meningitis and acute otitis media caused by such strains is particularly problematic. (Copied from article).