• 1 Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Anbar 00964, Iraq
Sensors (Basel), 2021 Dec 15;21(24).
PMID: 34960456 DOI: 10.3390/s21248362


Life was once normal before the first announcement of COVID-19's first case in Wuhan, China, and what was slowly spreading became an overnight worldwide pandemic. Ever since the virus spread at the end of 2019, it has been morphing and rapidly adapting to human nature changes which cause difficult conundrums in the efforts of fighting it. Thus, researchers were steered to investigate the virus in order to contain the outbreak considering its novelty and there being no known cure. In contribution to that, this paper extensively reviewed, compared, and analyzed two main points; SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission in humans and detection methods of COVID-19 in the human body. SARS-CoV-2 human exchange transmission methods reviewed four modes of transmission which are Respiratory Transmission, Fecal-Oral Transmission, Ocular transmission, and Vertical Transmission. The latter point particularly sheds light on the latest discoveries and advancements in the aim of COVID-19 diagnosis and detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with this disease in the human body. The methods in this review paper were classified into two categories which are RNA-based detection including RT-PCR, LAMP, CRISPR, and NGS and secondly, biosensors detection including, electrochemical biosensors, electronic biosensors, piezoelectric biosensors, and optical biosensors.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.