The diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and monitoring of the vaccination efficiency against HBV require real-time analysis. The presence of antibody against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) as a result of HBV infection and/or immunization may indicate individual immune status towards HBV. This study investigated the ability of a bio-nanogate-based displacement immunosensing strategy in detecting anti-HBsAg antibody, via nonspecific-binding between polyamidoamine dendrimers encapsulated gold nanoparticles (PAMAM-Au) and the 'antigenic determinant' region (aD) of HBsAg. For this purpose, maltose binding protein harbouring the aD region (MBP-aD) was synthesized as a bioreceptor and immobilized on the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Following that, PAMAM-Au was deposited on MBP-aD, forming the 'gate' and was used as a monitoring agent. Under optimal conditions, the high specificity of anti-HBsAg antibody towards MBP-aD displaced PAMAM-Au causing the decrement of anodic peak in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The signal changes were proportionally related to the concentration of anti-HBsAg antibody, in a range of 1 - 1000 mIU/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 mIU/mL. The results also showed high specificity and selectivity of the immunosensor platform in detecting anti-HBsAg antibody both in spiked buffer and human serum samples.
Animal senses cover a broad range of signal types and signal bandwidths and have inspired various sensors and bioinstrumentation devices for biological and medical applications. Insects, such as desert ants and honeybees, for example, utilize polarized skylight pattern-based information in their navigation activities. They reliably return to their nests and hives from places many kilometers away. The insect navigation system involves the dorsal rim area in their compound eyes and the corresponding polarization sensitive neurons in the brain. The dorsal rim area is equipped with photoreceptors, which have orthogonally arranged small hair-like structures termed microvilli. These are the specialized sensors for the detection of polarized skylight patterns (e-vector orientation). Various research groups have been working on the development of novel navigation systems inspired by polarized skylight-based navigation in animals. Their major contributions are critically reviewed. One focus of current research activities is on imitating the integration path mechanism in desert ants. The potential for simple, high performance miniaturized bioinstrumentation that can assist people in navigation will be explored.
Life was once normal before the first announcement of COVID-19's first case in Wuhan, China, and what was slowly spreading became an overnight worldwide pandemic. Ever since the virus spread at the end of 2019, it has been morphing and rapidly adapting to human nature changes which cause difficult conundrums in the efforts of fighting it. Thus, researchers were steered to investigate the virus in order to contain the outbreak considering its novelty and there being no known cure. In contribution to that, this paper extensively reviewed, compared, and analyzed two main points; SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission in humans and detection methods of COVID-19 in the human body. SARS-CoV-2 human exchange transmission methods reviewed four modes of transmission which are Respiratory Transmission, Fecal-Oral Transmission, Ocular transmission, and Vertical Transmission. The latter point particularly sheds light on the latest discoveries and advancements in the aim of COVID-19 diagnosis and detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with this disease in the human body. The methods in this review paper were classified into two categories which are RNA-based detection including RT-PCR, LAMP, CRISPR, and NGS and secondly, biosensors detection including, electrochemical biosensors, electronic biosensors, piezoelectric biosensors, and optical biosensors.
Sensors play a significant role in modern technologies and devices used in industries, hospitals, healthcare, nanotechnology, astronomy, and meteorology. Sensors based upon nanostructured materials have gained special attention due to their high sensitivity, precision accuracy, and feasibility. This review discusses the fabrication of graphene-based biosensors and gas sensors, which have highly efficient performance. Significant developments in the synthesis routes to fabricate graphene-based materials with improved structural and surface properties have boosted their utilization in sensing applications. The higher surface area, better conductivity, tunable structure, and atom-thick morphology of these hybrid materials have made them highly desirable for the fabrication of flexible and stable sensors. Many publications have reported various modification approaches to improve the selectivity of these materials. In the current work, a compact and informative review focusing on the most recent developments in graphene-based biosensors and gas sensors has been designed and delivered. The research community has provided a complete critical analysis of the most robust case studies from the latest fabrication routes to the most complex challenges. Some significant ideas and solutions have been proposed to overcome the limitations regarding the field of biosensors and hazardous gas sensors.
Kajian pemegunan enzim peroksidase dalam membran hibrid sol-gel-kitosan untuk penyediaan transduser optik hidrogen peroksida telah dilakukan dalam pembinaan biosensor. Kajian ini merangkumi pengoptimuman nisbah sol-gel-kitosan, pencirian enzim dalam larutan bebas dan pemegunan enzim dalam hibrid sol-gel-kitosan serta penciriannya. Spektrum serapan bagi setiap pencirian ditentukan menggunakan Spektrofotometer uL-Nampak. Hasil kajian menunjukkan aktiviti enzim tidak berubah selepas pemegunan. Nisbah optimum hibrid sol-gel-kitosan adalah 4:6. Nilai sisihan piawai relatif (RSD) untuk kebolehulangan kaedah ini adalah 2.71% dan 3.76%, masing-masingnya untuk enzim bebas dan enzim terpegun.
Optical chemical sensors have promoted escalating interest in the determination of various pollutants in the environment, which are creating toxicity and may cause serious health problems. This review paper focuses particularly on the recent progress and developments in this field; the working principles and basic classes of optical chemical sensors have been briefly described.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be congenital or acquired, results from the failure of the kidney to respond to the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). This will lead to excessive water loss from the body in the form of urine. The kidney, therefore, has a crucial role in maintaining water balance and it is vital to restore this function in an artificial kidney. Herein, an ultrasensitive and highly selective aptameric graphene-based field-effect transistor (GFET) sensor for ADH detection was developed by directly immobilizing ADH-specific aptamer on a surface-modified suspended graphene channel. This direct immobilization of aptamer on the graphene surface is an attempt to mimic the functionality of collecting tube V 2 receptors in the ADH biosensor. This aptamer was then used as a probe to capture ADH peptide at the sensing area which leads to changes in the concentration of charge carriers in the graphene channel. The biosensor shows a significant increment in the relative change of current ratio from 5.76 to 22.60 with the increase of ADH concentration ranging from 10 ag/mL to 1 pg/mL. The ADH biosensor thus exhibits a sensitivity of 50.00 µA· ( g / mL ) - 1 with a limit of detection as low as 3.55 ag/mL. In specificity analysis, the ADH biosensor demonstrated a higher current value which is 338.64 µA for ADH-spiked in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 557.89 µA for ADH-spiked in human serum in comparison with other biomolecules tested. This experimental evidence shows that the ADH biosensor is ultrasensitive and highly selective towards ADH in PBS buffer and ADH-spiked in human serum.
High sensitivity and capturing ratio are strongly demanded for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors when applied in detection of small molecules. Herein, an SPR sensor is combined with a novel smart material, namely, MoS2 nanoflowers (MNFs), to demonstrate programmable adsorption/desorption of small bipolar molecules, i.e., amino acids. The MNFs overcoated on the plasmonic gold layer increase the sensitivity by 25% compared to an unmodified SPR sensor, because of the electric field enhancement at the gold surface. Furthermore, as the MNFs have rich edge sites and negatively charged surfaces, the MNF-SPR sensors exhibit not only much higher bipolar-molecule adsorption capability, but also efficient desorption of these molecules. It is demonstrated that the MNF-SPR sensors enable controllable detection of amino acids by adjusting solution pH according to their isoelectric points. In addition, the MNFs decorated on the plasmonic interface can be as nanostructure frameworks and modified with antibody, which allows for specific detection of proteins. This novel SPR sensor provides a new simple strategy for pre-screening of amino acid disorders in blood plasma and a universal high-sensitive platform for immunoassay.
Existing public health emergencies due to fatal/infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and monkeypox have raised the paradigm of 5th generation portable intelligent and multifunctional biosensors embedded on a single chip. The state-of-the-art 5th generation biosensors are concerned with integrating advanced functional materials with controllable physicochemical attributes and optimal machine processability. In this direction, 2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), owing to their enhanced effective surface area, tunable physicochemical properties, and rich surface functionalities, have shown promising performances in biosensing flatlands. Moreover, their hybridization with diversified nanomaterials caters to their associated challenges for the commercialization of stability due to restacking and oxidation. MXenes and its hybrid biosensors have demonstrated intelligent and lab-on-chip prospects for determining diverse biomarkers/pathogens related to fatal and infectious diseases. Recently, on-site detection has been clubbed with solution-on-chip MXenes by interfacing biosensors with modern-age technologies, including 5G communication, internet-of-medical-things (IoMT), artificial intelligence (AI), and data clouding to progress toward hospital-on-chip (HOC) modules. This review comprehensively summarizes the state-of-the-art MXene fabrication, advancements in physicochemical properties to architect biosensors, and the progress of MXene-based lab-on-chip biosensors toward HOC solutions. Besides, it discusses sustainable aspects, practical challenges and alternative solutions associated with these modules to develop personalized and remote healthcare solutions for every individual in the world.
Surface plasmonic sensors have received considerable attention, found extensive applications, and outperformed conventional optical sensors. In this work, biopolymer chitosan (CS) was used to prepare the bilayer structure (CS/Au) of a plasmonic refractive index sensor for dopamine (DA) detection. The sensing characteristics of the developed plasmonic sensor were evaluated. Increasing DA concentrations significantly shifted the SPR dips. The sensor exhibited stability and a refractive index sensitivity of 8.850°/RIU in the linear range 0.1 nM to 1 µM with a detection limit of 0.007 nM and affinity constant of 1.383 × 108 M-1. The refractive index and thickness of the CS/Au structure were measured simultaneously by fitting the obtained experimental findings to theoretical data based on Fresnel equations. The fitting yielded the refractive index values n (1.5350 ± 0.0001) and k (0.0150 ± 0.0001) for the CS layer contacting 0.1 nM of DA, and the thickness, d was (15.00 ± 0.01) nm. Then, both n and d values increased by increasing DA concentrations. In addition, the changes in the FTIR spectrum and the variations in sensor surface roughness and structure obtained by AFM analysis confirmed DA adsorption on the sensing layer. Based on these observations, CS/Au bilayer has enhanced the performance of this plasmonic sensor, which showed promising importance as a simple, low-cost, and reliable platform for DA sensing.
This review covers the progress of nanomaterial-modified electrodes for enzymatic and non-enzymatic glucose biosensors. Fundamental insights into glucose biosensor components and the crucial factors controlling the electrochemical performance of glucose biosensors are discussed in detail. The metal, metal oxide, and hybrid/composite nanomaterial fabrication strategies for the modification of electrodes, mechanism of detection, and significance of the nanomaterials toward the electrochemical performance of enzymatic and non-enzymatic glucose biosensors are compared and comprehensively reviewed. This review aims to provide readers with an overview and underlying concept of producing a reliable, stable, cost-effective, and excellent electrochemical performance of a glucose biosensor.
Viruses have spread throughout the world and cause acute illness or death among millions of people. There is a growing concern about methods to control and combat early-stage viral infections to prevent the significant public health problem. However, conventional detection methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requires sample purification and are time-consuming for further clinical diagnosis. Hence, establishing a portable device for rapid detection with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity for the specific virus to prevent further spread becomes an urgent need. Many research groups are focusing on the potential of the electrochemical sensor to become a key for developing point-of-care (POC) technologies for clinical analysis because it can solve most of the limitations of conventional diagnostic methods. Herein, this review discusses the current development of electrochemical sensors for the detection of respiratory virus infections and flaviviruses over the past 10 years. Trends in future perspectives in rapid clinical detection sensors on viruses are also discussed. KEY POINTS: • Respiratory related viruses and Flavivirus are being concerned for past decades. • Important to differentiate the cross-reactivity between the virus in same family. • Electrochemical biosensor as a suitable device to detect viruses with high performance.
Constantly mutating SARS-CoV-2 is a global concern resulting in COVID-19 infectious waves from time to time in different regions, challenging present-day diagnostics and therapeutics. Early-stage point-of-care diagnostic (POC) biosensors are a crucial vector for the timely management of morbidity and mortalities caused due to COVID-19. The state-of-the-art SARS-CoV-2 biosensors depend upon developing a single platform for its diverse variants/biomarkers, enabling precise detection and monitoring. Nanophotonic-enabled biosensors have emerged as 'one platform' to diagnose COVID-19, addressing the concern of constant viral mutation. This review assesses the evolution of current and future variants of the SARS-CoV-2 and critically summarizes the current state of biosensor approaches for detecting SARS-CoV-2 variants/biomarkers employing nanophotonic-enabled diagnostics. It discusses the integration of modern-age technologies, including artificial intelligence, machine learning and 5G communication with nanophotonic biosensors for intelligent COVID-19 monitoring and management. It also highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for developing intelligent biosensors for diagnosing future SARS-CoV-2 variants. This review will guide future research and development on nano-enabled intelligent photonic-biosensor strategies for early-stage diagnosing of highly infectious diseases to prevent repeated outbreaks and save associated human mortalities.
Quantum dots (QDs) are a class of remarkable materials that have garnered significant attention since their initial discovery. It is noteworthy to mention that it took approximately a decade for these materials to be successfully implemented in practical applications. While QDs have demonstrated notable optical properties, it is important to note that these attributes alone have not rendered them a feasible substitute for traditional organic dyes. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the substance under investigation exhibited inherent toxicity and instability in its initial state, primarily due to the presence of a heavy metal core. In the initial stages of research, it was observed that the integration of nanocomposites had a positive impact on the properties of QDs. The discovery of these nanocomposites was motivated by the remarkable properties exhibited by biocomposites found in nature. Recent discoveries have shed light on the potential utilization of QDs as a viable strategy for drug delivery, offering a promising avenue to enhance the efficacy of current pharmaceuticals and pave the way for the creation of innovative therapeutic approaches. The primary objective of this review was to elucidate the distinctive characteristics that render QDs highly suitable for utilization as nanocarriers. In this study, we will delve into the multifaceted applications of QDs as sensing nanoprobes and their utilization in diverse drug delivery systems. The focus of our investigation was directed toward the utilization of QD/polymer composites in sensing applications, with particular emphasis on their potential as chemical sensors, biosensors, and physical sensors.
The race towards the development of user-friendly, portable, fast-detection, and low-cost devices for healthcare systems has become the focus of effective screening efforts since the pandemic attack in December 2019, which is known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently existing techniques such as RT-PCR, antigen-antibody-based detection, and CT scans are prompt solutions for diagnosing infected patients. However, the limitations of currently available indicators have enticed researchers to search for adjunct or additional solutions for COVID-19 diagnosis. Meanwhile, identifying biomarkers or indicators is necessary for understanding the severity of the disease and aids in developing efficient drugs and vaccines. Therefore, clinical studies on infected patients revealed that infection-mediated clinical biomarkers, especially pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, are highly associated with COVID-19. These biomarkers are undermined or overlooked in the context of diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of infected patients. Hence, this review discusses the potential implementation of these biomarkers for COVID-19 electrical biosensing platforms. The secretion range for each biomarker is reviewed based on clinical studies. Currently available electrical biosensors comprising electrochemical and electronic biosensors associated with these biomarkers are discussed, and insights into the use of infection-mediated clinical biomarkers as prognostic and adjunct diagnostic indicators in developing an electrical-based COVID-19 biosensor are provided.
Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave the potential to be a suitable matrix for the development of glucose biosensors.
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a label-free, accurate, fast, low-cost diagnostic technique that uses the principles of polarization and the motion of bioparticles in applied electric fields. This technique has been proven to be beneficial in various fields, including environmental research, polymer research, biosensors, microfluidics, medicine and diagnostics. Biomedical science research is one of the major research areas that could potentially benefit from DEP technology for diverse applications. Nevertheless, many medical science research investigations have yet to benefit from the possibilities offered by DEP. This paper critically reviews the fundamentals, recent progress, current challenges, future directions and potential applications of research investigations in the medical sciences utilizing DEP technique. This review will also act as a guide and reference for medical researchers and scientists to explore and utilize the DEP technique in their research fields.
The innovation of nanoparticles assumes a critical part of encouraging and giving open doors and conceivable outcomes to the headway of new era devices utilized as a part of biosensing. The focused on the quick and legitimate detecting of specific biomolecules using functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has turned into a noteworthy research enthusiasm for the most recent decade. Sensors created with gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes or in some cases by utilizing both are relied upon to change the very establishments of detecting and distinguishing various analytes. In this review, we will examine the current utilization of functionalized AuNPs and CNTs with other synthetic mixes for the creation of biosensor prompting to the location of particular analytes with low discovery cutoff and quick reaction.
An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R² = 0.982, n = 6). The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.
For the past 20 years, many authors have focused their investigations on wireless sensor networks. Various issues related to wireless sensor networks such as energy minimization (optimization), compression schemes, self-organizing network algorithms, routing protocols, quality of service management, security, energy harvesting, etc., have been extensively explored. The three most important issues among these are energy efficiency, quality of service and security management. To get the best possible results in one or more of these issues in wireless sensor networks optimization is necessary. Furthermore, in number of applications (e.g., body area sensor networks, vehicular ad hoc networks) these issues might conflict and require a trade-off amongst them. Due to the high energy consumption and data processing requirements, the use of classical algorithms has historically been disregarded. In this context contemporary researchers started using bio-mimetic strategy-based optimization techniques in the field of wireless sensor networks. These techniques are diverse and involve many different optimization algorithms. As far as we know, most existing works tend to focus only on optimization of one specific issue of the three mentioned above. It is high time that these individual efforts are put into perspective and a more holistic view is taken. In this paper we take a step in that direction by presenting a survey of the literature in the area of wireless sensor network optimization concentrating especially on the three most widely used bio-mimetic algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization and genetic algorithm. In addition, to stimulate new research and development interests in this field, open research issues, challenges and future research directions are highlighted.