Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

  1. Soon CF, Youseffi M, Berends RF, Blagden N, Denyer MC
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2013 Jan 15;39(1):14-20.
    PMID: 22809522 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.032
    Keratinocyte traction forces play a crucial role in wound healing. The aim of this study was to develop a novel cell traction force (CTF) transducer system based on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (LC). Keratinocytes cultured on LC induced linear and isolated deformation lines in the LC surface. As suggested by the fluorescence staining, the deformation lines appeared to correlate with the forces generated by the contraction of circumferential actin filaments which were transmitted to the LC surface via the focal adhesions. Due to the linear viscoelastic behavior of the LC, Hooke's equation was used to quantify the CTFs by associating Young's modulus of LC to the cell induced stresses and biaxial strain in forming the LC deformation. Young's modulus of the LC was profiled by using spherical indentation and determined at approximately 87.1±17.2kPa. A new technique involving cytochalasin-B treatment was used to disrupt the intracellular force generating actin fibers, and consequently the biaxial strain in the LC induced by the cells was determined. Due to the improved sensitivity and spatial resolution (∼1μm) of the LC based CTF transducer, a wide range of CTFs was determined (10-120nN). These were found to be linearly proportional to the length of the deformations. The linear relationship of CTF-deformations was then applied in a bespoke CTF mapping software to estimate CTFs and to map CTF fields. The generated CTF map highlighted distinct distributions and different magnitude of CTFs were revealed for polarized and non-polarized keratinocytes.
  2. Tehrani RM, Ab Ghani S
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2012 Oct-Dec;38(1):278-83.
    PMID: 22742810 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.05.044
    A non-enzymatic glucose sensor of multi-walled carbon nanotube-ruthenium oxide/composite paste electrode (MWCNT-RuO(2)/CPE) was developed. The electrode was characterized by using XRD, SEM, TEM and EIS. Meanwhile, cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to check on the performances of the MWCNT-RuO(2)/CPE towards glucose. The proposed electrode has displayed a synergistic effect of RuO(2) and MWCNT on the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in 3M NaOH. This was possible via the formation of transitions of two redox pairs, viz. Ru(VI)/Ru(IV) and Ru(VII)/Ru(VI). A linear range of 0.5-50mM glucose and a limit of detection of 33 μM glucose (S/N=3) were observed. There was no significant interference observable from the traditional interferences, viz. ascorbic acid and uric acid. Indeed, results so obtained have indicated that the developed MWCNT-RuO(2)/CPE would pave the way for a better future to glucose sensor development as its fabrication was without the use of any enzyme.
  3. Ang GY, Yu CY, Yean CY
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2012 Oct-Dec;38(1):151-6.
    PMID: 22705404 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.05.019
    In the field of diagnostics, molecular amplification targeting unique genetic signature sequences has been widely used for rapid identification of infectious agents, which significantly aids physicians in determining the choice of treatment as well as providing important epidemiological data for surveillance and disease control assessment. We report the development of a rapid nucleic acid lateral flow biosensor (NALFB) in a dry-reagent strip format for the sequence-specific detection of single-stranded polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons at ambient temperature (22-25°C). The NALFB was developed in combination with a linear-after-the-exponential PCR assay and the applicability of this biosensor was demonstrated through detection of the cholera toxin gene from diarrheal-causing toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Amplification using the advanced asymmetric PCR boosts the production of fluorescein-labeled single-stranded amplicons, allowing capture probes immobilized on the NALFB to hybridize specifically with complementary targets in situ on the strip. Subsequent visual formation of red lines is achieved through the binding of conjugated gold nanoparticles to the fluorescein label of the captured amplicons. The visual detection limit observed with synthetic target DNA was 0.3 ng and 1 pg with pure genomic DNA. Evaluation of the NALFB with 164 strains of V. cholerae and non-V. cholerae bacteria recorded 100% for both sensitivity and specificity. The whole procedure of the low-cost NALFB, which is performed at ambient temperature, eliminates the need for preheated buffers or additional equipment, greatly simplifying the protocol for sequence-specific PCR amplicon analysis.
  4. Fong JFY, Chin SF, Ng SM
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2016 Nov 15;85:844-852.
    PMID: 27290666 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.05.087
    Carbon dots (CDs) that showed strong blue fluorescence were successfully synthesised from sodium alginate via furnace pyrolysis. The single step pyrolytic synthesis was simple to perform while yielded CDs with high photostability, good water solubility and minimum by-products. In order to design the probe with "turn-on" sensing capability, the CDs were screened against a series of metal cations to first "turn-off" the fluorescence. It was found that ferric ions (Fe(3+)) were most responsive and effective in quenching the fluorescence of CDs. Based on this observation, the conditioning of the probe was performed to ensure the fluorescence was completely quenched, while not overloading the system with Fe(3+). At the optimised condition, the CDs-Fe(3+) mixture served as a highly specific detection probe for ascorbic acid (AA). The analytical potential of the probe was evaluated and showed a good linear range of response for AA concentration of 24-40μg/mL. The selectivity study against other possible co-existing species was carried out and proved that our unique "turn-on" fluorescence signalling strategy was highly effective and selective towards AA as the target analyte. The probe was demonstrated for quantification of AA in real samples, which was the commercially available vitamin C supplement. The result showed good accuracy with minimum deviation from standard method adopted for validation purpose.
  5. Nuzaihan M N M, Hashim U, Md Arshad MK, Kasjoo SR, Rahman SF, Ruslinda AR, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2016 Sep 15;83:106-14.
    PMID: 27107147 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.04.033
    In this paper, a silicon nanowire biosensor with novel molecular gate control has been demonstrated for Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection related to dengue virus (DENV). The silicon nanowire was fabricated using the top-down nanolithography approach, through nanostructuring of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layers achieved by combination of the electron-beam lithography (EBL), plasma dry etching and size reduction processes. The surface of the fabricated silicon nanowire was functionalized by means of a three-step procedure involving surface modification, DNA immobilization and hybridization. This procedure acts as a molecular gate control to establish the electrical detection for 27-mers base targets DENV DNA oligomer. The electrical detection is based on the changes in current, resistance and conductance of the sensor due to accumulation of negative charges added by the immobilized probe DNA and hybridized target DNA. The sensitivity of the silicon nanowire biosensors attained was 45.0µAM(-1), which shows a wide-range detection capability of the sensor with respect to DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) achieved was approximately 2.0fM. The demonstrated results show that the silicon nanowire has excellent properties for detection of DENV with outstanding repeatability and reproducibility performances.
  6. Hosseini S, Azari P, Farahmand E, Gan SN, Rothan HA, Yusof R, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Jul 15;69:257-64.
    PMID: 25765434 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.02.034
    Electrospun polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) fibers were dip-coated by polymethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid, poly(MMA-co-MAA), which was synthesized in different molar ratios of the monomers via free-radical polymerization. Fabricated platfrom was employed for immobilization of the dengue antibody and subsequent detection of dengue enveloped virus in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There is a major advantage for combination of electrospun fibers and copolymers. Fiber structre of electrospun PHB provides large specific surface area available for biomolecular interaction. In addition, polymer coated parts of the platform inherited the premanent presence of surface carboxyl (-COOH) groups from MAA segments of the copolymer which can be effectively used for covalent and physical protein immobilization. By tuning the concentration of MAA monomers in polymerization reaction the concentration of surface -COOH groups can be carefully controlled. Therefore two different techniques have been used for immobilization of the dengue antibody aimed for dengue detection: physical attachment of dengue antibodies to the surface and covalent immobilization of antibodies through carbodiimide chemistry. In that perspective, several different characterization techniques were employed to investigate the new polymeric fiber platform such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement and UV-vis titration. Regardless of the immobilization techniques, substantially higher signal intensity was recorded from developed platform in comparison to the conventional ELISA assay.
  7. Fathil MF, Md Arshad MK, Gopinath SC, Hashim U, Adzhri R, Ayub RM, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Aug 15;70:209-20.
    PMID: 25841117 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.03.037
    Acute myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction (MI) is a major health problem, due to diminished flow of blood to the heart, leads to higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Data from World Health Organization (WHO) accounted 30% of global death annually and expected more than 23 million die annually by 2030. This fatal effects trigger the need of appropriate biomarkers for early diagnosis, thus countermeasure can be taken. At the moment, the most specific markers for cardiac injury are cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) which have been considered as 'gold standard'. Due to higher specificity, determination of the level of cardiac troponins became a predominant indicator for MI. Several ways of diagnostics have been formulated, which include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, chemiluminescent, fluoro-immunoassays, electrical detections, surface plasmon resonance, and colorimetric protein assay. This review represents and elucidates the strategies, methods and detection levels involved in these diagnostics on cardiac superior biomarkers. The advancement, sensitivity, and limitations of each method are also discussed. In addition, it concludes with a discussion on the point-of care (POC) assay for a fast, accurate and ability of handling small sample measurement of cardiac biomarker.
  8. Adam T, Hashim U
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 May 15;67:656-61.
    PMID: 25453738 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.10.005
    The study demonstrates the development of a liquid-based gate-control silicon nanowire biosensor for detection of specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules. The sensor was fabricated using conventional photolithography coupled with an inductively coupled plasma dry etching process. Prior to the application of DNA to the device, its linear response to pH was confirmed by serial dilution from pH 2 to pH 14. Then, the sensor surface was silanized and directly aminated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane to create a molecular binding chemistry for biofunctionalization. The resulting Si‒O‒Si‒ components were functionalized with receptor ssDNA, which interacted with the targeted ssDNA to create a field across the silicon nanowire and increase the current. The sensor shows selectivity for the target ssDNA in a linear range from target ssDNA concentrations of 100 pM to 25 nM. With its excellent detection capabilities, this sensor platform is promising for detection of specific biomarkers and other targeted proteins.
  9. Yu CY, Ang GY, Chan KG, Banga Singh KK, Chan YY
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Aug 15;70:282-8.
    PMID: 25835520 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.03.048
    In this study, we developed a nucleic acid-sensing platform in which a simple, dry-reagent-based nucleic acid amplification assay is combined with a portable multiplex electrochemical genosensor. Preparation of an amplification reaction mix targeting multiple DNA regions of interest is greatly simplified because the lyophilized reagents need only be reconstituted with ultrapure water before the DNA sample is added. The presence of single or multiple target DNAs causes the corresponding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) amplicons to be generated and tagged with a fluorescein label. The fluorescein-labeled ssDNA amplicons are then analyzed using capture probe-modified screen-printed gold electrode bisensors. Enzymatic amplification of the hybridization event is achieved through the catalytic production of electroactive α-naphthol by anti-fluorescein-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. The applicability of this platform as a diagnostic tool is demonstrated with the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, which are associated with cholera epidemics and pandemics. The platform showed excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (100%) when challenged with 168 spiked stool samples. The limit of detection was low (10 colony-forming units/ml) for both toxigenic V. cholerae serogroups. A heat stability assay revealed that the dry-reagent amplification reaction mix was stable at temperatures of 4-56 °C, with an estimated shelf life of seven months. The findings of this study highlight the potential of combining a dry-reagent-based nucleic acid amplification assay with an electrochemical genosensor in a more convenient, sensitive, and sequence-specific detection strategy for multiple target nucleic acids.
  10. Khan A, Ab Ghani S
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2012 Jan 15;31(1):433-8.
    PMID: 22154168 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2011.11.007
    The electrochemical biosensors based on poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO) enzymes were fabricated on carbon fibre (CF) substrate. The electropolymerized PoPD was used to reduce the interfering substances. The electrode assembly was completed by depositing functionalized carbon nano tubes (FCNTs) and Nafion (Naf). Amperometric detection of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) were realized at an applied potential of +750 mV vs Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl). At pH 7.4, the final assembly, Naf-FCNTs/AChE-ChO((10:1))/PoPD/CF(Elip), was observed to have high sensitivity towards Ch (6.3±0.3 μA mM(-1)) and ACh (5.8±0.3 μA mM(-1)), linear range for Ch (K(M)=0.52±0.03 mM) and ACh (K(M)=0.59±0.07 mM), and for Ch the highest ascorbic acid blocking capacity (97.2±2 1mM AA). It had a response time of <5s and with 0.045 μM limit of detection. Studies on different ratio (ACh/Ch) revealed that 10:1, gave best overall response.
  11. Citartan M, Gopinath SC, Tominaga J, Tan SC, Tang TH
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2012 Apr 15;34(1):1-11.
    PMID: 22326894 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.01.002
    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity towards a wide range of target molecules. Aptamers have low molecular weight, amenable to chemical modifications and exhibit stability undeterred by repetitive denaturation and renaturation. Owing to these indispensable advantages, aptamers have been implemented as molecular recognition element as alternative to antibodies in various assays for diagnostics. By amalgamating with a number of methods that can provide information on the aptamer-target complex formation, aptamers have become the elemental tool for numerous biosensor developments. In this review, administration of aptamers in applications involving assays of fluorescence, electrochemistry, nano-label and nano-constructs are discussed. Although detection strategies are different for various aptamer-based assays, the core of the design strategies is similar towards reporting the presence of specific target binding to the corresponding aptamers. It is prognosticated that aptamers will find even broader applications with the development of new methods of transducing aptamer target binding.
  12. Chua A, Yean CY, Ravichandran M, Lim B, Lalitha P
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2011 May 15;26(9):3825-31.
    PMID: 21458979 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2011.02.040
    Treating patients with infectious diseases relies heavily on rapid and proper diagnosis. Molecular detection such as PCR has become increasingly important and efforts have been made to simplify these detection methods. This study reports the development of a glass fibre-based lateral flow DNA biosensor that uses capture reagents coupled to carrier beads and detector reagent bioconjugated to gold nanoparticles, for the detection of foodborne pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. The DNA biosensor contains a test line which captures target PCR amplicons, an internal amplification control (IC) line which captures IC amplicons and a control line which acts as membrane control to validate the functionality of this device. The test line captures biotin labelled DNA, while the IC line captures digoxigenin labelled DNA. The detector reagent recognizes the fluorescein haptens of the amplified DNA and produces visual red lines. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies performed indicated that the capture reagents remained relatively immobile within the matrix of the membrane even after binding of the detector reagent. The DNA biosensor recorded a limit of detection (LoD) of 5 ng of target DNA. A clinical evaluation was carried out with 174 strains of V. cholerae and non V. cholerae bacteria and the DNA biosensor recorded 100% for both sensitivity and specificity when compared to conventional agarose gel detection of DNA. Thus it is a viable alternative to agarose gel analysis and is easy-to-use, disposable and do not require any specialized equipment and use of carcinogenic chemicals.
  13. Zain ZM, O'Neill RD, Lowry JP, Pierce KW, Tricklebank M, Dewa A, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2010 Feb 15;25(6):1454-9.
    PMID: 19945264 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2009.10.049
    D-serine has been implicated as a brain messenger, promoting not only neuronal signalling but also synaptic plasticity. Thus, a sensitive tool for D-serine monitoring in brain is required to understand the mechanisms of D-serine release from glia cells. A biosensor for direct fixed potential amperometric monitoring of D-serine incorporating mammalian D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) immobilized on a Nafion coated poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) modified Pt-Ir disk electrode was therefore developed. The combined layers of PPD and Nafion enhanced the enzyme activity and biosensor efficiency by approximately 2-fold compared with each individual layer. A steady state response time (t(90%)) of 0.7+/-0.1s (n=8) and limit of detection 20+/-1 nM (n=8) were obtained. Cylindrical geometry showed lower sensitivity compared to disk geometry (61+/-7 microA cm(-2) mM(-1), (n=4), R(2)=0.999). Interference by ascorbic acid (AA), the main interference species in the central nervous system and other neurochemical electroactive molecules was negligible. Implantation of the electrode and microinjection of D-serine into rat brain striatal extracellular fluid demonstrated that the electrode was capable of detecting D-serine in brain tissue in vivo.
  14. Ahmad F, Yusof AP, Bainbridge M, Ab Ghani S
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2008 Jul 15;23(12):1862-8.
    PMID: 18440218 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2008.03.006
    The mechanisms involving insulin and anti-hypertensive drugs regulation for in vivo cerebral glucose metabolism are not well-understood. This might be due to lack of direct means of measuring cerebral glucose. It is known that the continuous delivery of glucose to the brain is critical for its normal metabolic function. In this study, we report the effect of insulin and anti-hypertensive drugs on glucose level in the striatum of rats. The rats were divided into two groups, i.e. hyperglycemia (14.8+/-0.3mM plasma glucose) and diabetic (10.8+/-0.2mM plasma glucose). A custom-built glucose microsensor was implanted at coordinates A/P 1.0 from bregma, M/L +2.5 and D/V -5.0 (from dura) in the striatum. The amperometric response obtained at +0.23 V vs. Ag|AgCl corresponded to the glucose level in striatum. By varying the concentrations of protaminc zinc insulin infused into the rats, striatum glucose level was found to remain constant throughout, i.e. 9.8+/-0.1 and 4.7+/-0.1mM for hyperglycemic rats and for diabetic rats, respectively. However, infusion of valsartan and felodipine has lowered the striatum glucose level significantly. These findings agreed with the hypothesis that suggested striatum glucose uptake do not depend on insulin but is clearly dependant on anti-hypertensive drugs administration.
  15. Ahmad F, Christenson A, Bainbridge M, Yusof AP, Ab Ghani S
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2007 Mar 15;22(8):1625-32.
    PMID: 16934449
    A new implantable electrocatalytic glucose sensor for subcutaneous glucose monitoring has been fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase on a chemically modified carbon fiber. The sensor was inserted subcutaneously on a male spraguely rat without any incision after dipping the microsensor in the rat's serum for 3 days. The so called "stained" microsensor, operated in the amperometric mode with an applied potential of +0.23 V versus Ag|AgCl, was able to directly measure the glucose concentration upon infusion of glucose. The results obtained were encouraging, with the response time was less than 2s and the apparent Michaelis-Menten value at 5.1+/-0.5mM. The "stained" microsensor shows good stability and reproducibility with constant response spanned over 25 days. Most common interferences in glucose analysis were minimized by the outerlayer Nafion. Hematology examinations showed minimal material-tissue interaction. Use of such mechanical devices will allow a more refined understanding towards glucose control in diabetic patients as the implanted microsensor was not effected by biocompatibility failures.
  16. Omar FS, Duraisamy N, Ramesh K, Ramesh S
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2016 May 15;79:763-75.
    PMID: 26774092 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.01.013
    Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) is an important coenzyme in the human body that participates in many metabolic reactions. The impact of abnormal concentrations of NADH significantly causes different diseases in human body. Electrochemical detection of NADH using bare electrode is a challenging task especially in the presence of main electroactive interferences such as ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and dopamine (DA). Modified electrodes have been widely explored to overcome the problems of poor sensitivity and selectivity occurred from bare electrodes. This review gives an overview on the progress of using conducting polymers, polyelectrolyte and its composites (co-polymer, carbonaceous, metal, metal oxide and clay) based modified electrodes for the sensing of NADH. In addition, developments on the fabrication of numerous conducting polymer composites based modified electrodes are clearly described.
  17. Babadi AA, Bagheri S, Hamid SB
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2016 May 15;79:850-60.
    PMID: 26785309 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.01.016
    Biofuel cells are bio-electrochemical devices, which are suitable for the environmentally friendly generation of energy. Enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) operates at ambient temperature and pH. Biofuel cells utilize vegetable and animal fluids (e.g. glucose) as a biofuel to produce energy. Fundamental part of each Glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) is two bioelectrodes which their surface utilizes as an enzyme immobilized site. Glucose oxidase (GOx) or glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) were immobilized on bioanode and oxidize glucose while oxygen reduced in biocathode using immobilized laccase or bilirubin oxidase in order to generate sufficient power. Glucose biofuel cells are capable to generate sufficient power for implanted devices. The key step of manufacturing a bioelectrode is the effective enzyme immobilization on the electrode surface. Due to the thin diameter of carbon nanomaterials, which make them accessible to the enzyme active sites, they are applicable materials to establish electronic communication with redox enzymes. Carbon nanomaterials regenerate the biocatalysts either by direct electron transfer or redox mediators which serve as intermediated for the electron transfer. Nano-carbon functionalization is perfectly compatible with other chemical or biological approaches to enhance the enzyme functions in implantable biofuel cells. Efficient immobilization of enzyme using the functionalized nano-carbon materials is the key point that greatly increases the possibilities of success. Current review highlights the progress on implantable biofuel cell, with focus on the nano-carbon functionalization for enzyme immobilization enhancement in glucose/O2 biofuel cells.
  18. Citartan M, Gopinath SCB, Chen Y, Lakshmipriya T, Tang TH
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Jan 15;63:86-98.
    PMID: 25058943 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.06.068
    The illegal administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) among athletes is largely preferred over blood doping to enhance stamina. The advent of recombinant DNA technology allowed the expression of EPO-encoding genes in several eukaryotic hosts to produce rHuEPO, and today these performance-enhancing drugs are readily available. As a mimetic of endogenous EPO (eEPO), rHuEPO augments the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Thus, monitoring the illicit use of rHuEPO among athletes is crucial in ensuring an even playing field and maintaining the welfare of athletes. A number of rHuEPO detection methods currently exist, including measurement of hematologic parameters, gene-based detection methods, glycomics, use of peptide markers, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing (IEF)-double immunoblotting, aptamer/antibody-based methods, and lateral flow tests. This review gleans these different strategies and highlights the leading molecular recognition elements that have potential roles in rHuEPO doping detection.
  19. Gopinath SC, Tang TH, Chen Y, Citartan M, Lakshmipriya T
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2014 Oct 15;60:332-42.
    PMID: 24836016 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.04.014
    The ubiquitous nature of bacteria enables them to survive in a wide variety of environments. Hence, the rise of various pathogenic species that are harmful to human health raises the need for the development of accurate sensing systems. Sensing systems are necessary for diagnosis and epidemiological control of pathogenic organism, especially in the food-borne pathogen and sanitary water treatment facility' bacterial populations. Bacterial sensing for the purpose of diagnosis can function in three ways: bacterial morphological visualization, specific detection of bacterial component and whole cell detection. This paper provides an overview of the currently available bacterial detection systems that ranges from microscopic observation to state-of-the-art smartphone-based detection.
  20. Gopinath SC, Tang TH, Chen Y, Citartan M, Tominaga J, Lakshmipriya T
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2014 Nov 15;61:357-69.
    PMID: 24912036 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.05.024
    Influenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, cause respiratory diseases in birds and mammals. With seasonal epidemics, influenza spreads all over the world, resulting in pandemics that cause millions of deaths. Emergence of various types and subtypes of influenza, such as H1N1 and H7N9, requires effective surveillance to prevent their spread and to develop appropriate anti-influenza vaccines. Diagnostic probes such as glycans, aptamers, and antibodies now allow discrimination among the influenza strains, including new subtypes. Several sensors have been developed based on these probes, efforts made to augment influenza detection. Herein, we review the currently available sensing strategies to detect influenza viruses.
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