• 1 Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Systems Engineering, 61775Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
Appl Spectrosc, 2023 Feb;77(2):210-219.
PMID: 36348500 DOI: 10.1177/00037028221140924


Nutrient solution plays an essential role in providing macronutrients to hydroponic plants. Determining nitrogen in the form of nitrate is crucial, as either a deficient or excessive supply of nitrate ions may reduce the plant yield or lead to environmental pollution. This work aims to evaluate the performance of feature reduction techniques and conventional machine learning (ML) algorithms in determining nitrate concentration levels. Two features reduction techniques, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and seven ML algorithms, for example, k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine, decision trees, naïve bayes, random forest (RF), gradient boosting, and extreme gradient boosting, were evaluated using a high-dimensional spectroscopic dataset containing measured nitrate-nitrite mixed solution absorbance data. Despite the limited and uneven number of samples per class, this study demonstrated that PCA outperformed LDA on the high-dimensional spectroscopic dataset. The classification accuracy of ML algorithms combined with PCA ranged from 92.7% to 99.8%, whereas the classification accuracy of ML algorithms combined with LDA ranged from 80.7% to 87.6%. The PCA with the RF algorithm exhibited the best performance with 99.8% accuracy.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.