Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Abu Bakar MH, Tan JS
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Sep;93:903-912.
    PMID: 28715871 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.021
    Compelling evidences posited that high level of saturated fatty acid gives rise to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties in a number of animal models with metabolic diseases. However, the cellular mechanistic action of celastrol in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present investigation evaluated the attributive properties of celastrol at different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40nM) on insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes evoked by palmitate. We demonstrated that celastrol improved mitochondrial functions through significant enhancement of intracellular ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, citrate synthase activity and decrease of mitochondrial superoxide productions. Meanwhile, augmented mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content with suppressed DNA oxidative damage were observed following celastrol treatment. Celastrol significantly enhanced fatty acid oxidation rate and increased the level of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates in palmitate-treated cells. Further analysis revealed that the improvement of glucose uptake activity in palmitate-loaded myotubes was partly mediated by celastrol via activation of PI3K-Akt insulin signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings provided evidence for the first time that the protection from palmitate-mediated insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by celastrol is likely associated with the improvement of mitochondrial functions-related metabolic activities.
  2. Abu Bakar MH, Sarmidi MR
    Mol Biosyst, 2017 Aug 22;13(9):1838-1853.
    PMID: 28726959 DOI: 10.1039/c7mb00333a
    Accumulating evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle as the root cause for the greatest hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the identification of specific metabolite-based markers linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, we sought to identify the markers-based metabolomics for mitochondrial dysfunction associated with T2D. First, a cellular disease model was established using human myotubes treated with antimycin A, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor. Non-targeted metabolomic profiling of intracellular-defined metabolites on the cultured myotubes with mitochondrial dysfunction was then determined. Further, a targeted MS-based metabolic profiling of fasting blood plasma from normal (n = 32) and T2D (n = 37) subjects in a cross-sectional study was verified. Multinomial logical regression analyses for defining the top 5% of the metabolites within a 95% group were employed to determine the differentiating metabolites. The myotubes with mitochondrial dysfunction exhibited insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation with impaired insulin signalling activities. Four metabolic pathways were found to be strongly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the cultured myotubes. Metabolites derived from these pathways were validated in an independent pilot investigation of the fasting blood plasma of healthy and diseased subjects. Targeted metabolic analysis of the fasting blood plasma with specific baseline adjustment revealed 245 significant features based on orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with a p-value < 0.05. Among these features, 20 significant metabolites comprised primarily of branched chain and aromatic amino acids, glutamine, aminobutyric acid, hydroxyisobutyric acid, pyroglutamic acid, acylcarnitine species (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, dodecenoylcarnitine, tetradecenoylcarnitine hexadecadienoylcarnitine and oleylcarnitine), free fatty acids (palmitate, arachidonate, stearate and linoleate) and sphingomyelin (d18:2/16:0) were identified as predictive markers for mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D subjects. The current study illustrates how cellular metabolites provide potential signatures associated with the biochemical changes in the dysregulated body metabolism of diseased subjects. Our finding yields additional insights into the identification of robust biomarkers for T2D associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured myotubes.
  3. Seder N, Abu Bakar MH, Abu Rayyan WS
    PMID: 33488102 DOI: 10.2147/AABC.S292143
    Introduction: Malaysian stingless bee honey (Trigona) has been aroused as a potential antimicrobial compound with antibiofilm activity. The capability of the gram-negative bacillus P. aeruginosa to sustain a fatal infection is encoded in the bacterium genome.

    Methods: In the current study, a transcriptome investigation was performed to explore the mechanism underlying the biofilm dispersal of P. aeruginosa after the exposure to Trigona honey.

    Results: Microarray analysis of the Pseudomonas biofilm treated by 20% Trigona honey has revealed a down-regulation of 3478 genes among the 6085 screened genes. Specifically, around 13.5% of the down-regulated genes were biofilm-associated genes. The mapping of the biofilm-associated pathways has shown an ultimate decrease in the expression levels of the D-GMP signaling pathway and diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) genes responsible for c-di-GMP formation.

    Conclusion: We predominantly report the lowering of c-di-GMP through the down-regulation of DGC genes as the main mechanism of biofilm inhibition by Trigona honey.

  4. Abu Bakar MH, Shariff KA, Tan JS, Lee LK
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2020 Sep 15;883:173371.
    PMID: 32712089 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173371
    Accumulating evidence indicates that adipose tissue inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle are inextricably linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Celastrol, a bioactive compound derived from the root of Tripterygium wilfordii exhibits a number of attributive properties to attenuate metabolic dysfunction in various cellular and animal disease models. However, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of celastrol in the obesogenic environment in vivo remain elusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the metabolic effects of celastrol on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response in adipose tissue and mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle of the high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Our study revealed that celastrol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks significantly reduced the final body weight and enhanced insulin sensitivity of the HFD-fed rats. Celastrol noticeably improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity and increased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle. Moreover, celastrol-treated HFD-fed rats showed attenuated inflammatory responses via decreased NF-κB activity and diminished mRNA expression responsible for classically activated macrophage (M1) polarization in adipose tissues. Significant improvement of muscle mitochondrial functions and enhanced antioxidant defense machinery via restoration of mitochondrial complexes I + III linked activity were effectively exhibited by celastrol treatment. Mechanistically, celastrol stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis attributed by upregulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathways. Together, these results further demonstrate heretofore the conceivable therapeutic mechanisms of celastrol in vivo against HFD-induced obesity mediated through attenuation of inflammatory response in adipose tissue and enhanced mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle.
  5. Abu Bakar MH, Azmi MN, Shariff KA, Tan JS
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2019 May;188(1):241-259.
    PMID: 30417321 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2920-2
    Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive constituent derived from Withania somnifera plant, has been shown to exhibit many qualifying properties in attenuating several metabolic diseases. The current investigation sought to elucidate the protective mechanisms of WA (1.25 mg/kg/day) on pre-existing obese mice mediated by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following dietary administration of WA, significant metabolic improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines with enhanced glucose tolerance were observed. The hepatic oxidative functions of obese mice treated with WA were improved via augmented antioxidant enzyme activities. The levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and hepatic mRNA expressions of toll-like receptor (TLR4), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-receptor, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced. Mechanistically, WA increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), fatty acid synthase (FAS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), glucokinase (GCK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) that were associated with enhanced lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results indicate that WA exhibits protective effects against HFD-induced obesity through attenuation of hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in mice.
  6. Leh HE, Mohd Sopian M, Abu Bakar MH, Lee LK
    Ann Med, 2021 12;53(1):1059-1065.
    PMID: 34180336 DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2021.1943515
    BACKGROUND: The use of lycopene as a complementary medicine for Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is limited and controversial. This study evaluated the effect of lycopene intake on the changes of glycaemic status and antioxidant capacity among the T2DM patients.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case-control study involved the participation of 87 patients and 122 healthy individuals. Lycopene intake was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire. The peripheral antioxidant capacity among the T2DM patients was evaluated. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured as indications of glycaemic status.

    RESULTS: Peripheral antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in the T2DM group. Direct positive correlations were found between the lycopene intake and peripheral antioxidant level among the T2DM patients. Contrarily, HbA1c and FPG levels decreased significantly with the higher lycopene intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients with a higher lycopene intake showed a greater peripheral antioxidant capacity and better glycaemic control. Lycopene may act to ameliorate oxidative stress and improve the pathophysiology of T2DM.

  7. Abu Bakar MH, Hairunisa N, Zaman Huri H
    Clin Exp Med, 2018 Aug;18(3):373-382.
    PMID: 29550985 DOI: 10.1007/s10238-018-0495-4
    Altered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most common denominator to numerous metabolic diseases. The present study sought to investigate the correlation between mtDNA content in lymphocytes and associated clinical risk factors for impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We included 23 healthy control and 42 IFG participants in this cross-sectional study. The measurements of mtDNA content in lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory markers derived from both normal and diseased individuals were quantified. Spearman partial correlation and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to evaluate the association between mtDNA content and other metabolic covariates in IFG. Reduced mtDNA content was observed in the IFG group with microvascular complications than those without complications. The IFG patients with lowest median of mtDNA content had considerably elevated hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and inflammation. The adjusted partial correlation analysis showed that mtDNA content was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and IL-10 (P 
  8. Ismail Z, Mohamad M, Isa MR, Fadzil MA, Yassin SM, Ma KT, et al.
    J Ment Health, 2015 Feb;24(1):29-32.
    PMID: 25358109 DOI: 10.3109/09638237.2014.971148
    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence showing that anxiety is associated with morbidity in the older age group. Factors contributing to anxiety may vary among different diseases and settings.
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with anxiety symptoms among elderly hypertensive at the primary care level.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study and face-to-face interviews using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were conducted among elderly hypertensive.
    RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of subjects was 68.8 (6.76) years and comprised of 49.5% and 50.5% of males and females, respectively. The majority of respondents were Malays (76.1%), followed by Chinese (14.3%), and Indians (9.5%). The mean (SD) duration of hypertension was 8.44 (7.29) years and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 13.3% (95% CI: 9.9, 16.7). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that elderly hypertensive with a past history of stroke (adjusted OR: 4.472; 95% CI: 1.754, 11.405; p = 0.002) and depression (adjusted OR: 3.715; 95% CI: 2.009, 6.872; p 
  9. Al-Asadi HA, Abu Bakar MH, Al-Mansoori MH, Adikan FR, Mahdi MA
    Opt Express, 2011 Dec 5;19(25):25741-8.
    PMID: 22273966 DOI: 10.1364/OE.19.025741
    This paper details a theoretical modeling of Brillouin ring fiber laser which incorporates the interaction between multiple Brillouin Stokes signals. The ring cavity was pumped at several Brillouin pump (BP) powers and the output was measured through an optical coupler with various coupling ratios. The first-order Brillouin Stokes signal was saturated with the presence of the second-order Stokes signal in the cavity as a result of energy transfer between them. The outcome of the study found that the optimum point for the first-order Stokes wave performance is at laser power reduction of 10%. Resultantly, at the optimum output coupling ratio of 90%, the BFL was able to produce 19.2 mW output power at BP power and Brillouin threshold power of 60 and 21.3 mW respectively. The findings also exhibited the feasibility of the theoretical models application to ring-type Brillouin fiber laser of various design parameters.
  10. Sarmani AR, Abu Bakar MH, Bakar AA, Adikan FR, Mahdi MA
    Opt Express, 2011 Jul 18;19(15):14152-9.
    PMID: 21934778 DOI: 10.1364/OE.19.014152
    We report an ultra-long Raman laser that implemented a variable pumping scheme in backward and forward configurations. Rayleigh backscattering effects were realized in the 51 km fiber length that functioned as a virtual mirror at one fiber end. With the employment of a fiber Bragg grating that has a peak reflection wavelength at 1553.3 nm, spectral broadening effects were observed. These occurred as the pump power level was diverted more to the forward direction. Owing to this fact, a maximum width of 0.9 nm was measured at 100% forward pumping. The obtained results show that the efficient exploitation of four-wave mixing interactions as well as strong Rayleigh backscattering are beneficial to influence the lasing performances. Both of these nonlinear responses can be adjusted by varying pumping distributions along the fiber longitudinal dimension.
  11. Abu Hassan MR, Abu Bakar MH, Dambul K, Adikan FR
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(11):15820-6.
    PMID: 23202233 DOI: 10.3390/s121115820
    In this paper, we present the development and testing of an optical-based sensor for monitoring the corrosion of reinforcement rebar. The testing was carried out using an 80% etched-cladding Fibre Bragg grating sensor to monitor the production of corrosion waste in a localized region of the rebar. Progression of corrosion can be sensed by observing the reflected wavelength shift of the FBG sensor. With the presence of corrosion, the etched-FBG reflected spectrum was shifted by 1.0 nm. In addition, with an increase in fringe pattern and continuously, step-like drop in power of the Bragg reflected spectrum was also displayed.
  12. Schmitz RF, Abu Bakar MH, Omar ZH, Kamalanathan S, Schulpen TW, van der Werken C
    Trop Doct, 2001 Jul;31(3):152-4.
    PMID: 11444337
    This study evaluates the safety and results of surgery usingTaraKlamp Circumcision Device during a group circumcision. Atotal of 64 circumcisions of Muslim boys were performed by Medical Assistants supervised by Medical Doctors in a hall in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A new type disposable clamp was used, which was removed 4 days after the operation. No major complications occurred and the boys experienced in general mild pain postoperatively. Mostly good cosmetic results were obtained and 90% of the parents would recommend this new clamp to others. Group circumcisions withTaraKlamp Circumcision Device (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) are safe, although proper patient selection and adequate training in using the device are mandatory.
  13. Abu Bakar MH, Sarmidi MR, Tan JS, Mohamad Rosdi MN
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2017 Mar 15;799:73-83.
    PMID: 28161417 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.01.043
    Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced inflammation is among the convergence points for the greatest hallmarks of hepatic insulin resistance. Celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound from the root of Tripterygium Wilfordii has been reported to mitigate insulin resistance and inflammation in animal disease models. Nevertheless, the specific mechanistic actions of celastrol in modulating such improvements at the cellular level remain obscure. The present study sought to explore the mechanistic roles of celastrol upon insulin resistance induced by palmitate in C3A human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes exposed to palmitate (0.75mM) for 48h exhibited reduced both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to increased mitochondrial oxidative stress with diminished fatty acid oxidation. Elevated expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways and the amplified release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were observed following palmitate treatment. Consistently, palmitate reduced and augmented phosphorylated Tyrosine-612 and Serine-307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins, respectively in hepatocytes. However, celastrol at the optimum concentration of 30nM was able to reverse these deleterious occasions and protected the cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Importantly, we presented evidence for the first time that celastrol efficiently prevented palmitate-induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes at least, via improved mitochondrial functions and insulin signaling pathways. In summary, the present investigation underlines a conceivable mechanism to elucidate the cytoprotective potential of celastrol in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation against the development of hepatic insulin resistance.
  14. Abu Bakar MH, Cheng KK, Sarmidi MR, Yaakob H, Huri HZ
    Molecules, 2015 May 07;20(5):8242-69.
    PMID: 25961164 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20058242
    Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are widely accepted as key hallmarks of obesity-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional roles of an anti-inflammatory compound, celastrol, in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by antimycin A (AMA) in human skeletal muscle cells. We found that celastrol treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity of AMA-treated cells, apparently via PI3K/Akt pathways, with significant enhancement of mitochondrial activities. Furthermore, celastrol prevented increased levels of cellular oxidative damage where the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultures cells was greatly reduced. Celastrol significantly increased protein phosphorylation of insulin signaling cascades with amplified expression of AMPK protein and attenuated NF-κB and PKC θ activation in human skeletal muscle treated with AMA. The improvement of insulin signaling pathways by celastrol was also accompanied by augmented GLUT4 protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that celastrol may be advocated for use as a potential therapeutic molecule to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells.
  15. Goh YS, Karunakaran T, Murugaiyah V, Santhanam R, Abu Bakar MH, Ramanathan S
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 17;26(12).
    PMID: 34204457 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26123704
    Mitragyna speciosa Korth (kratom) is known for its psychoactive and analgesic properties. Mitragynine is the primary constituent present in kratom leaves. This study highlights the utilisation of the green accelerated solvent extraction technique to produce a better, non-toxic and antinociceptive active botanical extract of kratom. ASE M. speciosa extract had a dry yield (0.53-2.91 g) and showed a constant mitragynine content (6.53-7.19%) when extracted with organic solvents of different polarities. It only requires a shorter extraction time (5 min) and a reduced amount of solvents (less than 100 mL). A substantial amount of total phenolic (407.83 ± 2.50 GAE mg/g and flavonoids (194.00 ± 5.00 QE mg/g) were found in ASE kratom ethanol extract. The MTT test indicated that the ASE kratom ethanolic leaf extract is non-cytotoxic towards HEK-293 and HeLa Chang liver cells. In mice, ASE kratom ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) demonstrated a better antinociceptive effect compared to methanol and ethyl acetate leaf extracts. The presence of bioactive indole alkaloids and flavonols such as mitragynine, paynantheine, quercetin, and rutin in ASE kratom ethanolic leaf extract was detected using UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS analysis supports its antinociceptive properties. ASE ethanolic leaf extract offers a better, safe, and cost-effective choice of test botanical extract for further preclinical studies.
  16. Zailan AAD, Karunakaran T, Abu Bakar MH, Mian VJY
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Oct 12.
    PMID: 34636709 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2021.1982936
    Genus Calophyllum from the family of Calophyllaceae is an evergreen broad-leaved tree that is endemic to Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia. They have been reported for various ethnomedicinal uses in traditional medicine. Previous studies of Malaysian Calophyllum species revealed them to be a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents such as xanthones, coumarins, terpenoids, and chromanone acids. To date, the extracts and compounds from Malaysian Calophyllum species have shown a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. For example, calanolide A, a coumarin isolated from Malaysian C. lanigerum, has now reached clinical development to become an anti-HIV drug. This article presents an overview of the significant phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Malaysian Calophyllum species to aid researchers in further discovery of potential benefits of various species of this genus.
  17. Rusli SFN, Daud SM, Abu Bakar MH, Loh KS, Masdar MS
    Molecules, 2022 Feb 03;27(3).
    PMID: 35164309 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27031045
    The biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) system is a promising and a cheap alternative method to improve cathode reaction performance. This study aims to identify the effect of the electrode combination between non-chemical modified stainless steel (SS) and graphite fibre brush (GFB) for constructing bio-electrodes in an MFC. In this study, the MFC had two chambers, separated by a cation exchange membrane, and underwent a total of four different treatments with different electrode arrangements (anodeǁcathode)-SSǁSS (control), GFBǁSS, GFBǁGFB and SSǁGFB. Both electrodes were heat-treated to improve surface oxidation. On the 20th day of the operation, the GFBǁGFB arrangement generated the highest power density, up to 3.03 W/m3 (177 A/m3), followed by the SSǁGFB (0.0106 W/m3, 0.412 A/m3), the GFBǁSS (0.0283 W/m3, 17.1 A/m3), and the SSǁSS arrangements (0.0069 W/m-3, 1.64 A/m3). The GFBǁGFB had the lowest internal resistance (0.2 kΩ), corresponding to the highest power output. The other electrode arrangements, SSǁGFB, GFBǁSS, and SSǁSS, showed very high internal resistance (82 kΩ, 2.1 kΩ and 18 kΩ, respectively) due to the low proton and electron movement activity in the MFC systems. The results show that GFB materials can be used as anode and cathode in a fully biotic MFC system.
  18. Abu Bakar MH, Mohamad Khalid MSF, Nor Shahril NS, Shariff KA, Karunakaran T
    Biofactors, 2022 Jan;48(1):111-134.
    PMID: 34676604 DOI: 10.1002/biof.1793
    High fructose consumption has been linked to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance that results in increased intracellular 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity. Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene, has been demonstrated to exhibit multifaceted targets to attenuate various metabolic diseases associated with inflammation. However, the underlying mechanisms by which celastrol exerts its attributive properties on high fructose diet (HFrD)-induced metabolic syndrome remain elusive. Herein, the present study was aimed to elucidate the mechanistic targets of celastrol co-administrations upon HFrD in rats and evaluate its potential to modulate 11β-HSD1 activity. Celastrol remarkably improved glucose tolerance, lipid profiles, and insulin sensitivity along with suppression of hepatic glucose production. In rat adipose tissues, celastrol attenuated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven inflammation, reduced c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation, and mitigated oxidative stress via upregulated genes expression involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, insulin signaling pathways were significantly improved through the restoration of Akt phosphorylation levels at Ser473 and Thr308 residues. Celastrol exhibited a potent, selective and specific inhibitor of intracellular 11β-HSD1 towards oxidoreductase activity (IC50 value = 4.3 nM) in comparison to other HSD-related enzymes. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression in rat adipose microsomes reduced the availability of its cofactor NADPH and substrate H6PDH in couple to upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of glucocorticoid receptor. In conclusion, our results underscore the most likely conceivable mechanisms exhibited by celastrol against HFrD-induced metabolic dysregulations mainly through attenuating inflammation and insulin resistance, at least via specific inhibitions on 11β-HSD1 activity in adipose tissues.
  19. Mohamad Rosdi MN, Mohd Arif S, Abu Bakar MH, Razali SA, Mohamed Zulkifli R, Ya'akob H
    Apoptosis, 2018 01;23(1):27-40.
    PMID: 29204721 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1434-7
    Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant's bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.
  20. Zainuddin NH, Chee HY, Ahmad MZ, Mahdi MA, Abu Bakar MH, Yaacob MH
    J Biophotonics, 2018 08;11(8):e201700363.
    PMID: 29570957 DOI: 10.1002/jbio.201700363
    This paper presents the development of tapered optical fiber sensor to detect a specific Leptospira bacteria DNA. The bacteria causes Leptospirosis, a deadly disease but with common early flu-like symptoms. Optical single mode fiber (SMF) of 125 μm diameter is tapered to produce 12 μm waist diameter and 15 cm length. The novel DNA-based optical fiber sensor is functionalized by incubating the tapered region with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde. Probe DNA is immobilized onto the tapered region and subsequently hybridized by its complementary DNA (cDNA). The transmission spectra of the DNA-based optical fiber sensor are measured in the 1500 to 1600 nm wavelength range. It is discovered that the shift of the wavelength in the SMF sensor is linearly proportional with the increase in the cDNA concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0 nM. The sensitivity of the sensor toward DNA is measured to be 1.2862 nm/nM and able to detect as low as 0.1 fM. The sensor indicates high specificity when only minimal shift is detected for non-cDNA testing. The developed sensor is able to distinguish between actual DNA of Leptospira serovars (Canicola and Copenhageni) against Clostridium difficile (control sample) at very low (femtomolar) target concentrations.
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