• 1 Photonics Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical, Electronic & Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 08;12(9).
PMID: 32911662 DOI: 10.3390/polym12092040


This research demonstrates a one-step modification process of biopolymer carrageenan active sites through functional group substitution in κ-carrageenan structures. The modification process improves the electronegative properties of κ-carrageenan derivatives, leading to enhancement of the material's performance. Synthesized succinyl κ-carrageenan with a high degree of substitution provides more active sites for interaction with analytes. The FTIR analysis of succinyl κ-carrageenan showed the presence of new peaks at 1068 cm-1, 1218 cm-1, and 1626 cm-1 that corresponded to the vibrations of C-O and C=O from the carbonyl group. A new peak at 2.86 ppm in 1H NMR represented the methyl proton neighboring with C=O. The appearance of new peaks at 177.05 and 177.15 ppm in 13C NMR proves the substitution of the succinyl group in the κ-carrageenan structure. The elemental analysis was carried out to calculate the degree of substitution with the highest value of 1.78 at 24 h of reaction. The XRD diffractogram of derivatives exhibited a higher degree of crystallinity compared to pristine κ-carrageenan at 23.8% and 9.2%, respectively. Modification of κ-carrageenan with a succinyl group improved its interaction with ions and the conductivity of the salt solution compared to its pristine form. This work has a high potential to be applied in various applications such as sensors, drug delivery, and polymer electrolytes.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.