• 1 College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004, Zhejiang, PR, China
  • 2 Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Huzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Huzhou, 313001, P.R. China
  • 3 Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials Innovations, College of Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China
  • 4 Physics Department, College of Science, Jouf University, P.O. Box 2014, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
  • 5 College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065, China
  • 6 Department of Physics, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, Pakistan
  • 7 School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072, Xian, PR China
  • 8 Research Center for Adv. Mater. Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia
  • 9 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • 10 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
  • 11 Energy Technol. Program, Department of Specialized Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Rd., Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
  • 12 Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Perlis, 02600, Arau Perlis, Malaysia
  • 13 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, 82524, Egypt
  • 14 College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004, China
Chem Rec, 2023 Jan;23(1):e202200143.
PMID: 36285706 DOI: 10.1002/tcr.202200143


The increasing demand for searching highly efficient and robust technologies in the context of sustainable energy production totally rely onto the cost-effective energy efficient production technologies. Solar power technology in this regard will perceived to be extensively employed in a variety of ways in the future ahead, in terms of the combustion of petroleum-based pollutants, CO2 reduction, heterogeneous photocatalysis, as well as the formation of unlimited and sustainable hydrogen gas production. Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is regarded as potentially sustainable solution in this context. g-C3 N4 is classified as non-metallic semiconductor to overcome this energy demand and enviromental challenges, because of its superior electronic configuration, which has a median band energy of around 2.7 eV, strong photocatalytic stability, and higher light performance. The photocatalytic performance of g-C3 N4 is perceived to be inadequate, owing to its small surface area along with high rate of charge recombination. However, various synthetic strategies were applied in order to incorporate g-C3 N4 with different guest materials to increase photocatalytic performance. After these fabrication approaches, the photocatalytic activity was enhanced owing to generation of photoinduced electrons and holes, by improving light absorption ability, and boosting surface area, which provides more space for photocatalytic reaction. In this review, various metals, non-metals, metals oxide, sulfides, and ferrites have been integrated with g-C3 N4 to form mono, bimetallic, heterojunction, Z-scheme, and S-scheme-based materials for boosting performance. Also, different varieties of g-C3 N4 were utilized for different aspects of photocatalytic application i. e., water reduction, water oxidation, CO2 reduction, and photodegradation of dye pollutants, etc. As a consequence, we have assembled a summary of the latest g-C3 N4 based materials, their uses in solar energy adaption, and proper management of the environment. This research will further well explain the detail of the mechanism of all these photocatalytic processes for the next steps, as well as the age number of new insights in order to overcome the current challenges.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.