• 1 Faculty of Earth Science, UMK Kampus Jeli, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia E-mail:
  • 2 Department of Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
Water Sci Technol, 2016;73(7):1719-27.
PMID: 27054745 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.001


In this study, a new, more effective and cost-effective treatment alternative is investigated for the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater treatment plant effluent (WWTP-eff). The potential of combining clay with biodegradable polymeric flocculants is further highlighted. Flocculation is viewed as the best method to get the optimum outcome from clay. In addition, flocculation with cationic starch increases the biodegradability and cost of the treatment. Clay is naturally abundantly available and relatively inexpensive compared to conventional adsorbents. Experimental studies were carried out with existing naturally occurring pharmaceutical concentrations found and measured in WWTP-eff with atrazine spiking for comparison between the demineralised water and WWTP-eff matrix. Around 70% of the total measured pharmaceutical compounds were removable by the clay-starch combination. The effect of clay with and without starch addition was also highlighted.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.