Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 233 in total

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  1. Ahmad A, Siddique JA, Laskar MA, Kumar R, Mohd-Setapar SH, Khatoon A, et al.
    J Environ Sci (China), 2015 May 1;31:104-23.
    PMID: 25968265 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2014.12.008
    The direct determination of toxic metal ions, in environmental samples, is difficult because of the latter's presence in trace concentration in association with complex matrices, thereby leading to insufficient sensitivity and selectivity of the methods used. The simultaneous removal of the matrix and preconcentration of the metal ions, through solid phase extraction, serves as the promising solution. The mechanism involved in solid phase extraction (SPE) depends on the nature of the sorbent and analyte. Thus, SPE is carried out by means of adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, ion pair formation, and so forth. As polymeric supports, the commercially available Amberlite resins have been found very promising for designing chelating matrices due to its good physical and chemical properties such as porosity, high surface area, durability and purity. This review presents an overview of the various works done on the modification of Amberlite XAD resins with the objective of making it an efficient sorbent. The methods of modifications which are generally based on simple impregnation, sorption as chelates and chemical bonding have been discussed. The reported results, including the preconcentration limit, the detection limit, sorption capacity, preconcentration factors etc., have been reproduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  2. Nurulhuda K, Gaydon DS, Jing Q, Zakaria MP, Struik PC, Keesman KJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Feb;98(3):865-871.
    PMID: 28940491 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8683
    Extensive modelling studies on nitrogen (N) dynamics in flooded soil systems have been published. Consequently, many N dynamics models are available for users to select from. With the current research trend, inclined towards multidisciplinary research, and with substantial progress in understanding of N dynamics in flooded soil systems, the objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the modelling concepts and performance of 14 models developed to simulate N dynamics in flooded soil systems. This overview provides breadth of knowledge on the models, and, therefore, is valuable as a first step in the selection of an appropriate model for a specific application. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
  3. Huda N, Raman AAA, Bello MM, Ramesh S
    J Environ Manage, 2017 Dec 15;204(Pt 1):75-81.
    PMID: 28865309 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.08.028
    The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising many persistent organic pollutants which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. This study investigated the treatment of raw landfill leachate using electrocoagulation process. An electrocoagulation system was designed with iron as both the anode and cathode. The effects of inter-electrode distance, initial pH and electrolyte concentration on colour and COD removals were investigated. All these factors were found to have significant effects on the colour removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was also conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Under optimum conditions (initial pH: 7.73, inter-electrode distance: 1.16 cm, and electrolyte concentration (NaCl): 2.00 g/L), the process could remove up to 82.7% colour and 45.1% COD. The process can be applied as a pre-treatment for raw leachates before applying other appropriate treatment technologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  4. Lam SS, Yek PNY, Ok YS, Chong CC, Liew RK, Tsang DCW, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 05 15;390:121649.
    PMID: 31753673 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121649
    Improving the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of biochar production is crucial to meet increased global market demand. Here, we developed a single-step microwave steam activation (STMSA) as a simplified yet efficient method to produce microwave activated biochar (MAB) from waste palm shell (WPS). The STMSA recorded a higher heating rate (70 °C/min) and higher conversion (45 wt%) of WPS into highly microporous MAB (micropore surface area of 679.22 m2/g) in contrast with the conventional heating approach (≤ 12-17 wt%). The MAB was then applied as biosorbent for hazardous landfill leachate (LL) treatment and the adsorption performance was compared with commercial activated carbon under different pH, adsorbent quantity, adsorbate concentrations, and contact times. The MAB demonstrated high adsorption capacity, achieving maximum adsorption efficiency at 595 mg/g and 65 % removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with 0.4 g/L of adsorbent amount under optimal acidic conditions (pH ≈ 2-3) after 24 h of contact time. The Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic models were well-fitted to explain the equilibrium adsorption and kinetics. The results indicate the viability of STMSA as a fast and efficient approach to produce activated biochar as a biosorbent for the treatment of hazardous landfill leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  5. Tahir NM, Pang SY, Simoneit BR
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 May;22(10):7557-68.
    PMID: 25752627 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4184-5
    Three short sediment cores from inner continental shelf of the southern South China Sea (5-50 km) off Terengganu were analyzed for lipid contents (i.e., homologous aliphatic compounds and sterols) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAHs) ranged from 0.152 to 6.91 μg/g dry weight. The n-alkane distribution was from nC₁₃ to nC₃₆, with a carbon preference index (CPI₁₃₋₃₅) from 1.08 to 4.28 and a carbon number maximum (Cmax), depending on a sample, at 31 or 18. In addition, a strong odd-to-even carbon number predominance was observed in nC₂₅-nC₃₅ range. The distribution of the n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols in all samples exhibited an even-to-odd carbon number predominance and ranged from C₁₀ to C₂₆ and from C₁₂ to C₃₄, respectively. The n-alkanols were dominated by the long-chain homologs with Cmax at 22; on the other hand, the n-alkanoic acid distributions showed a predominance of short-chain homologs with a Cmax at 16. The total sterol concentrations ranged from 0.41 to 3.57 μg/g dry weight. Cholesterol was most abundant at the offshore stations, whereas sitosterol was dominant at near-shore station. Pentacyclic triterpenoids such as friedelin and taraxerol α- and β-amyrins, which are known biomarkers for higher plants, were detected at all stations with a dilution trend offshore. In conclusion, the marine sediments off southern Terengganu can still be considered uncontaminated, where the compound sources are biogenic from terrestrial plants superimposed with a marine productivity input.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  6. Keshavarzifard M, Zakaria MP, Hwai TS, Yusuff FM, Mustafa S
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Jun;22(12):9424-37.
    PMID: 25604562 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4093-7
    In this study, the distributions and sources of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in the Malaysian rivers and estuaries were evaluated. The concentrations of 16 USEPA PAHs varied from 225.5 to 293.9 (Perlis River), 195.2 to 481.2 (Kedah River), 791.2 to 1995.4 (Merbok River), 231.2 to 426.7 (Perak River), and 3803.2 to 7442.7 ng g(-1) (Klang River) dry weight. PAHs can be classified as moderate in the Perlis, Kedah, and Perak Rivers, moderate to high in the Merbok River, and high to very high in the Klang River. The comparison of PAHs with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicates that occasionally adverse biological effects may occur from total PAHs, low molecular weight (LMW), and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs at stations 1, 2, and 3 of the Klang River and from total PAHs at station 2 of the Merbok River. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic origin PAHs with significant dominance of pyrogenic sources in the study areas. The results suggest that Malaysian sediments had hopane ratios (C29/C30) similar to MECO suggesting MECO as a major source of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sediments, which is consistent with results reported in previous studies. These findings demonstrate that effective and improved environmental regulations in Malaysia have shifted the source of petroleum hydrocarbons from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  7. Idriss AA, Ahmad AK
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2015 Feb;94(2):204-8.
    PMID: 25564001 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-014-1452-x
    This study examined the concentration of heavy metals in 13 fish species. The results indicated that shellfish species (clams) have the highest metal concentrations, followed by demersal and pelagic fishes. The mean concentration of metals in clams are Zn 88.74 ± 11.98 µg/g, Cu 4.96 ± 1.06 µg/g, Pb 1.22 ± 0.19 µg/g, Cd 0.34 ± 0.04 µg/g dry wt. basis, whereas the same measure in fish tissues was 58.04 ± 18.51, 2.47 ± 1.21, 0.58 ± 0.27 and 0.17 ± 0.08 µg/g dry wt. basis. The concentrations of heavy metals in clams and fish tissues were still lower than the maximum allowable concentrations as suggested by the Malaysian Food Act (1983) and are considered safe for local human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  8. Ngaini Z, Noh F, Wahi R
    Environ Technol, 2014 Nov-Dec;35(21-24):2761-6.
    PMID: 25176478 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2014.920051
    Agro-waste from the bark of Metroxylon sagu (sago) was studied as a low cost and effective oil sorbent in dry and aqueous environments. Sorption study was conducted using untreated sago bark (SB) and esterified sago bark (ESB) in used engine oil. Characterization study showed that esterification has successfully improved the hydrophobicity, buoyancy, surface roughness and oil sorption capacity of ESB. Sorption study revealed that water uptake of SB is higher (30 min static: 2.46 g/g, dynamic: 2.67 g/g) compared with ESB (30 min static: 0.18 g/g, dynamic: 0.14 g/g). ESB, however, showed higher oil sorption capacity in aqueous environment (30 min static: 2.30 g/g, dynamic: 2.14) compared with SB (30 min static: 0 g/g, dynamic: 0 g/g). ESB has shown great poTENTial as effective oil sorbent in aqueous environment due to its high oil sorption capacity, low water uptake and high buoyancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  9. Abdullah AH, Abdullah EA, Zainal Z, Hussein MZ, Ban TK
    Water Sci Technol, 2012;65(9):1632-8.
    PMID: 22508126 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.057
    The adsorption of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution onto penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate, Bi(5)O(7)NO(3), synthesized by precipitation method, was studied in a batch adsorption system. The effects of operation parameters such as adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium and mechanism of adsorption was evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm and different kinetic models, respectively. The results indicate that adsorption is highly dependent on all operation parameters. At optimum conditions, the adsorption capacity was found to be 18.9 mg/g. The adsorption data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm model indicating monolayer coverage of adsorbate molecules on the surface of Bi(5)O(7)NO(3). The kinetic studies show that the adsorption process is a second-order kinetic reaction. Although intra-particle diffusion limits the rate of adsorption, the multi-linearity plot of intra-particle model shows the importance of both film and intra-particle diffusion as the rate-limiting steps of the dye removal. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption process is endothermic, spontaneous and favourable at high temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  10. Syafalni, Lim HK, Ismail N, Abustan I, Murshed MF, Ahmad A
    J Environ Manage, 2012 Dec 15;112:353-9.
    PMID: 22964042 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.08.001
    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  11. Chow MF, Yusop Z, Mohamed M
    Water Sci Technol, 2011;63(6):1211-6.
    PMID: 21436558 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.360
    This paper examines the storm runoff quality from a commercial area in south Johor, Malaysia. Six storm events with a total of 68 storm runoff samples were analyzed. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) for all constituents analysed showed large inter-event variation. Site mean concentrations (SMC) for total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease (O&G), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO(2)-N), ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N), total phosphorus (Total P) and Soluble P are 261, 4.31, 74, 192, 1.5, 0.006, 1.9, 1.12 and 0.38 mg/L, respectively. The SMCs at the studied site are higher than those reported in many urban catchments. The mean baseflow concentrations were higher than the EMCs for COD, Soluble P, NH(3)-N, NO(3)-N, Total P and NO(2)-N. However, the reverse was observed for TSS and O&G. All pollutants showed the occurrence of first flush phenomenon with the highest strength was observed for TSS, COD and NH(3)-N.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  12. Foo KY, Hameed BH
    Adv Colloid Interface Sci, 2010 Sep 15;159(2):130-43.
    PMID: 20673570 DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2010.06.002
    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most urgent environmental turmoil for the 21st century. To date, the percolation of textile effluents into the waterways and aquifer systems, remain an intricate conundrum abroad the nations. With the renaissance of activated carbon, there has been a steadily growing interest in the research field. Recently, the adoption of titanium dioxide, a prestigious advanced photo-catalyst which formulates the new growing branch of activated carbon composites for enhancement of adsorption rate and discoloration capacity, has attracted stern consideration and supports worldwide. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of titanium dioxide/activated carbon composites technology, its fundamental background studies, and environmental implications. Moreover, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of activated carbons composites material represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the plausible improvement of environmental conservation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  13. Ngu LH, Law PL, Wong KK, Yusof AA
    Water Sci Technol, 2010;62(5):1129-35.
    PMID: 20818055 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.407
    This research investigated the effects of co- and counter-current flow patterns on oil-water-solid separation efficiencies of a circular separator with inclined coalescence mediums. Oil-water-solid separations were tested at different influent concentrations and flowrates. Removal efficiencies increased as influent flowrate decreased, and their correlationship can be represented by power equations. These equations were used to predict the required flowrate, Q(ss50), for a given influent suspended solids concentration C(iss) to achieve the desired effluent suspended solids concentration, C(ess) of 50 mg/L, to meet environmental discharge requirements. The circular separator with counter-current flow was found to attend removal efficiencies relatively higher as compared to the co-current flow. As compared with co-current flow, counter-current flow Q(ss50) was approximately 1.65 times higher than co-current flow. It also recorded 13.16% higher oil removal at influent oil concentration, C(io) of 100 mg/L, and approximately 5.89% higher TSS removal at all influent flowrates. Counter-current flow's better removal performances were due to its higher coalescing area and constant interval between coalescence plate layers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  14. Hameed BH, Lee TW
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 May 30;164(2-3):468-72.
    PMID: 18804913 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.018
    In this study, advanced oxidation process utilizing Fenton's reagent was investigated for degradation of malachite green (MG). The effects of different reaction parameters such as the initial MG concentration, initial pH, the initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, the initial ferrous concentration and the reaction temperature on the oxidative degradation of MG have been investigated. The optimal reacting conditions were experimentally found to be pH 3.40, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration=0.50mM and initial ferrous concentration=0.10mM for initial MG concentration of 20mg/L at 30 degrees C. Under optimal conditions, 99.25% degradation efficiency of dye in aqueous solution was achieved after 60 min of reaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
  15. Zakaria ZA, Aruleswaran N, Kaur S, Ahmad WA
    Water Sci Technol, 2007;56(8):117-23.
    PMID: 17978439
    Cr(VI) biosorption and bioreduction ability of locally isolated Cr-resistant bacteria was investigated using the shake-flask technique. A mixture of S. epidermidis and B. cereus showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) level at 750 mg/L Cr(VI) followed by S. aureus and Bacillus sp. of 250 mg/L, and A. haemolyticus of 70 mg/L. From the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the treatment of cells with heat-acid resulted in the highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorped (78.25 mg/g dry wt. for S. epidermidis) compared to heat-acetone (67.93 mg/g dry wt. Bacillus sp.), heat only (36.05 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis) or untreated cells (45.40 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis and B. cereus). FTIR analysis showed the involvement of amine groups in Cr(VI) adsorption. In the bioreduction study, A. haemolyticus was able to completely reduce Cr(VI) up to 50 mg/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
  16. Aziz HA, Alias S, Adlan MN, Faridah, Asaari AH, Zahari MS
    Bioresour Technol, 2007 Jan;98(1):218-20.
    PMID: 16386895
    A study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes for removing colour from a semi-aerobic landfill leachate from one of the landfill sites in Malaysia. Four types of coagulant namely aluminium (III) sulphate (alum), ferric (III) chloride, ferrous (II) sulphate and ferric (III) sulphate were studied using standard jar test apparatus. Results indicated that ferric chloride was superior to the other coagulants and removed 94% of colour at an optimum dose of 800 mg/l at pH 4. The effect of coagulant dosages on colour removal showed similar trend as for COD, turbidity and suspended solids. This suggested that colour in landfill leachate was mainly contributed by organic matters with some insoluble forms that exhibited turbidity and suspended solids readings. The results from this study suggested that ferric chloride could be a viable coagulant in managing colour problems associated with landfill leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  17. Alslaibi TM, Abustan I, Mogheir YK, Afifi S
    Waste Manag Res, 2013 Jan;31(1):50-9.
    PMID: 23148014 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X12465462
    Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  18. Zahrim AY, Hilal N, Tizaoui C
    Water Sci Technol, 2013;67(4):901-6.
    PMID: 23306271 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.638
    Tubular nanofiltration membrane performance to treat water for reuse was carried out by choosing C.I. Acid Black 210 dye as a model dye. It has been shown that increasing pH causes reduction in irreversible fouling factor (IFF) and the dye removal is also affected by solution pH. The total organic carbon removal for pH 4, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 10 is 97.9, 92.3, 94.5 and 94.6%, respectively. The conductivity removal for pH 4, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 10 is 85.1, 88.3, 87.8 and 90.7% respectively. The increase in the initial dye concentration causes rapid increase in fouling until 100 mg/l. Then the fouling increases gradually as it reaches a maximum IFF around 13%. This study also shows that the colour of permeate changes from colourless to light greenish/yellowish (initial concentration of 2,000 and 4,000 mg/l) as the initial dye concentration increases. The conductivity removal was also reduced as the initial dye concentration increased due to screening of the Donnan effect with the presence of salt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  19. Tay KS, Madehi N
    Sci Total Environ, 2015 Jul 1;520:23-31.
    PMID: 25791053 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.033
    Application of ozonation in water treatment involves complex oxidation pathways that could lead to the formation of various by-products, some of which may be harmful to living organisms. In this work, ozonation by-products of ofloxacin (OFX), a frequently detected pharmaceutical pollutant in the environment, were identified and their ecotoxicity was estimated using the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) computer program. In order to examine the role of ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radicals (∙OH) in the degradation of ofloxacin, ozonation was performed at pH2, 7 and 12. In this study, 12 new structures have been proposed for the ozonation by-products detected during the ozonation of ofloxacin. According to the identified ozonation by-products, O3 and ∙OH were found to react with ofloxacin during ozonation. The reaction between ofloxacin and O3 proceeded via hydroxylation and breakdown of heterocyclic ring with unsaturated double-bond. The reaction between ofloxacin and ·OH generated various by-products derived from the breakdown of heterocyclic ring. Ecotoxicity assessment indicated that ozonation of OFX could yield by-products of greater toxicity compared with parent compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
  20. Mubarak NM, Sahu JN, Abdullah EC, Jayakumar NS
    J Environ Sci (China), 2016 Jul;45:143-55.
    PMID: 27372128 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2015.12.025
    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a tubular microwave chemical vapor deposition technique, using acetylene and hydrogen as the precursor gases and ferrocene as catalyst. The novel MWCNT samples were tested for their performance in terms of Pb(II) binding. The synthesized MWCNT samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis, and the adsorption of Pb(II) was studied as a function of pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, MWCNT dosage, agitation speed, and adsorption time, and process parameters were optimized. The adsorption data followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. On the basis of the Langmuir model, Qmax was calculated to be 104.2mg/g for the microwave-synthesized MWCNTs. In order to investigate the dynamic behavior of MWCNTs as an adsorbent, the kinetic data were modeled using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations. Different thermodynamic parameters, viz., ∆H(0), ∆S(0) and ∆G(0) were evaluated and it was found that the adsorption was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (99.9%) of Pb(II) are at pH5, MWCNT dosage 0.1g, agitation speed 160r/min and time of 22.5min with the initial concentration of 10mg/L. Our results proved that microwave-synthesized MWCNTs can be used as an effective Pb(II) adsorbent due to their high adsorption capacity as well as the short adsorption time needed to achieve equilibrium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
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