• 1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering-Rabigh Branch, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:
  • 2 Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Taibah University, P.O. Box 30002, Al-Madina, 41447, Saudi Arabia
  • 3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering-Rabigh Branch, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • 4 Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellence (CEGeoGTech), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, 01000, Malaysia; Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, 01000, Malaysia
Chemosphere, 2023 Sep;335:139036.
PMID: 37245592 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.139036


Considering the limitation of fossil fuel resources and their environmental effects, the use of renewable energies is increasing. In the current research, a combined cooling and power production (CCPP) system is investigated, the energy source of which is solar energy. Solar energy absorbs by solar flat plate collectors (SFPC). The system produces power with the help of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). An ejector refrigeration cycle (ERC) system is considered to provide cooling capacity. The motive flow is supplied from the expander extraction in the ERC system. Various working fluids have been applied so far for the ORC-ERC cogeneration system. This research investigates the effect of using two working fluids R-11 and R-2545fa, and the zeotropic mixtures obtained by mixing these two fluids. A multiobjective optimization process is considered to select the appropriate working fluid. In the optimization design process, the goal is to minimize the total cost rate (TCR) and maximize the exergy efficiency of the system. The design variables are the quantity of SFPC, heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) pressure, ejector motive flow pressure, evaporator pressure, condenser pressure, and entertainment ratio. Finally, it is observed that using zeotropic mixtures obtained from these two refrigerants has a better result than using pure refrigerants. Finally, it is observed that the best performance is achieved when R-11 and R245fa are mixed with a ratio of 80 to 20%, respectively and led to 8.5% improvement in exergy efficiency, while the increase in TCR is only 1.5%.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

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