Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 736 in total

  1. Gitan AA, Zulkifli R, Abdullah S, Sopian K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:767614.
    PMID: 24672370 DOI: 10.1155/2014/767614
    Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  2. Arumugam S, Yew HZ, Baharin SA, Qamaruz Zaman J, Muchtar A, Kanagasingam S
    Aust Endod J, 2021 Dec;47(3):520-530.
    PMID: 33956372 DOI: 10.1111/aej.12516
    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the frequency of microcracks and its severity at different root canal dentin locations, after preparation with thermomechanically heat-treated engine-driven nickel-titanium instruments. Forty mandibular premolars were assigned to four experimental groups (n = 10): ProTaper Next, ProTaper Gold, WaveOne Gold and Reciproc Blue. After pre-instrumentation micro-computed tomography scans, the root canals were prepared to size 25. Following post-instrumentation scans, pre- and post-instrumentation scanned images were analysed for the presence and extent of dentinal defects. A total of 56 500 cross-sectional images were obtained, showing that less than 2.3% with pre-existing dentinal microcracks. No new microcracks were identified during the post-instrumentation analyses. No significant association was found between the types of dentinal defects, file motions and sequences. Thermomechanically heat-treated rotary files did not induce the formation of new microcracks. There was also no association between the kinematic motions and sequences of the rotary instruments to the types of dentinal defects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  3. Mak NL, Ooi EH, Lau EV, Ooi ET, Pamidi N, Foo JJ, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2022 Dec;227:107195.
    PMID: 36323179 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.107195
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thermochemical ablation (TCA) is a thermal ablation technique involving the injection of acid and base, either sequentially or simultaneously, into the target tissue. TCA remains at the conceptual stage with existing studies unable to provide recommendations on the optimum injection rate, and reagent concentration and volume. Limitations in current experimental methodology have prevented proper elucidation of the thermochemical processes inside the tissue during TCA. Nevertheless, the computational TCA framework developed recently by Mak et al. [Mak et al., Computers in Biology and Medicine, 2022, 145:105494] has opened new avenues in the development of TCA. Specifically, a recommended safe dosage is imperative in driving TCA research beyond the conceptual stage.

    METHODS: The aforesaid computational TCA framework for sequential injection was applied and adapted to simulate TCA with simultaneous injection of acid and base at equimolar and equivolume. The developed framework, which describes the flow of acid and base, their neutralisation, the rise in tissue temperature and the formation of thermal damage, was solved numerically using the finite element method. The framework will be used to investigate the effects of injection rate, reagent concentration, volume and type (weak/strong acid-base combination) on temperature rise and thermal coagulation formation.

    RESULTS: A higher injection rate resulted in higher temperature rise and larger thermal coagulation. Reagent concentration of 7500 mol/m3 was found to be optimum in producing considerable thermal coagulation without the risk of tissue overheating. Thermal coagulation volume was found to be consistently larger than the total volume of acid and base injected into the tissue, which is beneficial as it reduces the risk of chemical burn injury. Three multivariate second-order polynomials that express the targeted coagulation volume as functions of injection rate and reagent volume, for the weak-weak, weak-strong and strong-strong acid-base combinations were also derived based on the simulated data.

    CONCLUSIONS: A guideline for a safe and effective implementation of TCA with simultaneous injection of acid and base was recommended based on the numerical results of the computational model developed. The guideline correlates the coagulation volume with the reagent volume and injection rate, and may be used by clinicians in determining the safe dosage of reagents and optimum injection rate to achieve a desired thermal coagulation volume during TCA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature
  4. Salman SD, Kadhum AA, Takriff MS, Mohamad AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:492762.
    PMID: 24078795 DOI: 10.1155/2013/492762
    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  5. Goh CS, Tan HT, Lee KT
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Apr;110:662-9.
    PMID: 22326327 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.083
    The influence of reaction temperature (160-200°C), residence time (45-90min), and liquid-solid ratio (8-16v/w) on oil palm frond (OPF) pre-treated with hot compressed water (HCW) was evaluated using severity factors. Effect of the process parameters studied on pulps composition and digestibility were found to be complex. The results revealed that digestibility could not be predicted merely according to composition. Severity factor was correlated with compositional changes and digestibility with good R-squared values at varied liquid-solid ratios (8-16v/w), but not with overall glucose yield. HCW pretreatment significantly improved the overall glucose yield up to 83.72% with severity of 3.31 and liquid-solid ratio of 8.0 compared to untreated raw OPF which only recorded an overall glucose yield of 30.97%. HCW is therefore an effective method for pretreatment of OPF for glucose recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  6. Jesudason CG
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0145026.
    PMID: 26760507 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145026
    The Carnot cycle and its deduction of maximum conversion efficiency of heat inputted and outputted isothermally at different temperatures necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were mechanically "reversible", leading eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S with differential dS = dq/T such that [symbol: see text]C dS = 0 where the heat absorption occurs at the isothermal paths of the elementary Carnot cycle. Another required condition is that the heat transfer processes take place infinitely slowly and "reversibly", implying that rates of transfer are not explicitly featured in the theory. The definition of 'heat' as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference suggests that the local mode of transfer of "heat" in the isothermal segments of the pathway implies a Fourier-like heat conduction mechanism which is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the conducting material, and which is deemed reversible mechanically. These paradoxes are circumvented here by first clarifying the terms used before modeling heat transfer as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process and applied to a one dimensional atomic lattice chain of interacting particles subjected to a temperature difference exemplifying Fourier heat conduction. The basis of a "recoverable trajectory" i.e. that which follows a zero entropy trajectory is identified. The Second Law is strictly maintained in this development. A corollary to this zero entropy trajectory is the generalization of the Zeroth law for steady state non-equilibrium systems with varying temperature, and thus to a statement about "equilibrium" in steady state non-thermostatic conditions. An energy transfer rate term is explicitly identified for each particle and agrees quantitatively (and independently) with the rate of heat absorbed at the reservoirs held at different temperatures and located at the two ends of the lattice chain in MD simulations, where all energy terms in the simulation refer to a single particle interacting with its neighbors. These results validate the theoretical model and provides the necessary boundary conditions (for instance with regard to temperature differentials and force fields) that thermodynamical variables must comply with to satisfy the conditions for a recoverable trajectory, and thus determines the solution of the differential and integral equations that are used to model these processes. These developments and results, if fully pursued would imply that not only can the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion by a single interacting particle which feature rates of energy transfer and conversion not possible in the classical Carnot development, but that even irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible (ii) reversible (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes by conflating the classically distinct concept of work and heat energy into a single particle interactional process. A resolution to the fundamental and long-standing conjecture of Benofy and Quay concerning the Fourier principle is one consequence of the analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  7. Ullah I, Bhattacharyya K, Shafie S, Khan I
    PLoS One, 2016;11(10):e0165348.
    PMID: 27776174 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165348
    Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  8. Aghamohammadi N, Ramakreshnan L, Fong CS, Noor RM, Hanif NR, Sulaiman NM
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Feb 01;806(Pt 1):150331.
    PMID: 34571225 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150331
    The stakeholders' perceptions on the impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) are critical for reducing exposure and influencing their response to interventions that are aimed at encouraging a behaviour change. A proper understanding of the UHI impacts on the society, economy and environment is deemed an essential motivating factor for the stakeholders to work towards UHI mitigations in the local context. This study adopted an inductive qualitative approach using Stakeholder Dialogue Sessions (SDSs) to assess the perceived impacts of UHI among various stakeholders, comprising policy makers, academicians, developers and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), in a tropical metropolitan city. The results revealed five themes such as deterioration of public health, acceleration of urban migration patterns and spending time in cooler areas, reduction of workers' productivity, increased energy consumption by the households and deterioration of environmental quality and natural resources that were categorized into social, economic and environmental impacts. Although most of the stakeholders were quite unfamiliar with the term UHI, they still display a good understanding of the potential impacts of UHI due to their posteriori knowledge and ability to rationalize the physical condition of the environment in which they live. The findings provide useful insights and valuable information to the local authorities to tailor necessary actions and educational campaigns to increase UHI awareness among the stakeholders. Being among the earlier studies to use a qualitative approach to attain the aforementioned objective, the findings are crucial to determine the level of understanding of the stakeholders on the impact of UHI. Through this study, the authors have highlighted the gaps and needs for knowledge improvements aimed at behaviour change among the stakeholders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  9. Nyakuma BB, Mahyon NI, Chiong MS, Rajoo S, Pesiridis A, Wong SL, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Aug;30(39):90522-90546.
    PMID: 37479929 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-28791-4
    The recovery and utilisation of waste heat from flue/exhaust gases (RU/WHFG) could potentially provide sustainable energy while curbing pollutant emissions. Over time, the RU/WHFG research landscape has gained significant traction and yielded innovative technologies, sustainable strategies, and publications. However, critical studies highlighting current advancements, publication trends, research hotspots, major stakeholders, and future research directions on RU/WHFG research remain lacking. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive bibliometric analysis and literature review of the RU/WHFG research landscape based on publications indexed in Scopus. Results showed that 123 publications and 2191 citations were recovered between 2010 and 2022. Publication trends revealed that the growing interest in RU/WHFG is mainly due to environmental concerns (e.g. pollution, global warming, and climate change), research collaborations, and funding availability. Stakeholder analysis revealed that numerous researchers, affiliations, and countries have actively contributed to the growth and development of RU/WHFG. Lin Fu and Tsinghua University (China) are the most prolific researchers and affiliations, whereas the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and China are the most prolific funder and country, respectively. Funding availability from influential schemes such as NSFC has accounted for China's dominance. Keyword co-occurrence identified three major research hotspots, namely, thermal energy utilisation and management (cluster 1), integrated energy and resource recovery (cluster 2), and system analysis and optimisation (cluster 3). Literature review revealed that researchers are currently focused on maximising thermodynamic/energy efficiency, fuel minimisation, and emission reduction. Despite progress, research gaps remain in low-temperature/low-grade waste heat recovery, utilisation, storage, life cycle, and environmental impact analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  10. Nevame AYM, Emon RM, Malek MA, Hasan MM, Alam MA, Muharam FM, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:1653721.
    PMID: 30065932 DOI: 10.1155/2018/1653721
    Occurrence of chalkiness in rice is attributed to genetic and environmental factors, especially high temperature (HT). The HT induces heat stress, which in turn compromises many grain qualities, especially transparency. Chalkiness in rice is commonly studied together with other quality traits such as amylose content, gel consistency, and protein storage. In addition to the fundamental QTLs, some other QTLs have been identified which accelerate chalkiness occurrence under HT condition. In this review, some of the relatively stable chalkiness, amylose content, and gel consistency related QTLs have been presented well. Genetically, HT effect on chalkiness is explained by the location of certain chalkiness gene in the vicinity of high-temperature-responsive genes. With regard to stable QTL distribution and availability of potential material resources, there is still feasibility to find out novel stable QTLs related to chalkiness under HT condition. A better understanding of those achievements is essential to develop new rice varieties with a reduced chalky grain percentage. Therefore, we propose the pyramiding of relatively stable and nonallelic QTLs controlling low chalkiness endosperm into adaptable rice varieties as pragmatic approach to mitigate HT effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  11. Abdollahi A, Pradhan B
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Jul 11;21(14).
    PMID: 34300478 DOI: 10.3390/s21144738
    Urban vegetation mapping is critical in many applications, i.e., preserving biodiversity, maintaining ecological balance, and minimizing the urban heat island effect. It is still challenging to extract accurate vegetation covers from aerial imagery using traditional classification approaches, because urban vegetation categories have complex spatial structures and similar spectral properties. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have shown a significant improvement in remote sensing image classification outcomes during the last few years. These methods are promising in this domain, yet unreliable for various reasons, such as the use of irrelevant descriptor features in the building of the models and lack of quality in the labeled image. Explainable AI (XAI) can help us gain insight into these limits and, as a result, adjust the training dataset and model as needed. Thus, in this work, we explain how an explanation model called Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) can be utilized for interpreting the output of the DNN model that is designed for classifying vegetation covers. We want to not only produce high-quality vegetation maps, but also rank the input parameters and select appropriate features for classification. Therefore, we test our method on vegetation mapping from aerial imagery based on spectral and textural features. Texture features can help overcome the limitations of poor spectral resolution in aerial imagery for vegetation mapping. The model was capable of obtaining an overall accuracy (OA) of 94.44% for vegetation cover mapping. The conclusions derived from SHAP plots demonstrate the high contribution of features, such as Hue, Brightness, GLCM_Dissimilarity, GLCM_Homogeneity, and GLCM_Mean to the output of the proposed model for vegetation mapping. Therefore, the study indicates that existing vegetation mapping strategies based only on spectral characteristics are insufficient to appropriately classify vegetation covers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  12. Muhammad Aniq Qayyum Mohamad Sukry, Norazlina Subani, Muhammad Arif Hannan, Faizzuddin Jamaluddin, Ahmad Danial Hidayatullah Badrolhisam
    Partial differential equations involve results of unknown functions when there are multiple independent variables. There is a need for analytical solutions to ensure partial differential equations could be solved accurately. Thus, these partial differential equations could be solved using the right initial and boundaries conditions. In this light, boundary conditions depend on the general solution; the partial differential equations should present particular solutions when paired with varied boundary conditions. This study analysed the use of variable separation to provide an analytical solution of the homogeneous, one-dimensional heat equation. This study is applied to varied boundary conditions to examine the flow attributes of the heat equation. The solution is verified through different boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Neumann, and mixed-insulated boundary conditions. the initial value was kept constant despite the varied boundary conditions. There are two significant findings in this study. First, the temperature profile changes are influenced by the boundary conditions, and that the boundary conditions are dependent on the heat equation’s flow attributes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature
  13. Anuar Ishak
    The effect of radiation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was studied. The governing system of partial differential equations was transformed into ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically by an implicit finite-difference method. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics were obtained and discussed. It was found that the local heat transfer rate at the surface decreases with increasing values of the magnetic and radiation parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature
  14. Fazlian Aman, Anuar Ishak, Pop J
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1369-1374.
    The heat transfer behaviour of a viscous fluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet driven by a uniform shear in the far field with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The boundary layer equations governing the flow are reduced to ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. Using a numerical technique, these equations are then solved to obtain the temperature distributions and the heat transfer rate at the surface for various values of Prandtl number, stretching/shrinking parameter and convective parameter. Dual solutions are found to exist for the shrinking case, whereas for the stretching case, the solution is unique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature
  15. Roslan R, Saleh H, Hashim I
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:617492.
    PMID: 24991643 DOI: 10.1155/2014/617492
    The aim of the present numerical study is to analyze the conjugate natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a conductive polygon object. The left wall is heated and the right wall is cooled, while the horizontal walls are kept adiabatic. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The governing parameters considered are the polygon type, 3 ≤ N ≤ ∞, the horizontal position, 0.25 ≤ X 0 ≤ 0.75, the polygon size, 0 ≤ A ≤ π/16, the thermal conductivity ratio, 0.1 ≤ K r ≤ 10.0, and the Rayleigh number, 10(3) ≤ Ra ≤ 10(6). The critical size of the solid polygon was found exists at low conductivities. The heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the size of the solid polygon, until it reaches its maximum value. Here, the size of the solid polygon is reaches its critical value. Further, beyond this critical size of the solid polygon, will decrease the heat transfer rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  16. Balla HH, Abdullah S, Mohdfaizal W, Zulkifli R, Sopian K
    J Oleo Sci, 2013;62(7):533-9.
    PMID: 23823920
    A numerical simulation model for laminar flow of nanofluids in a pipe with constant heat flux on the wall was built to study the effect of the Reynolds number on convective heat transfer and pressure loss. The investigation was performed for hybrid nanofluids consisting of CuO-Cu nanoparticles and compared with CuO and Cu in which the nanoparticles have a spherical shape with size 50, 50, 50nm respectively. The nanofluids were prepared, following which the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity were measured for a range of temperatures (10 -60°C). The numerical results obtained were compared with the existing well-established correlation. The prediction of the Nusselt number for nanofluids agrees well with the Shah correlation. The comparison of heat transfer coefficients for CuO, Cu and CuO-Cu presented an increase in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid as the convective heat transfer coefficient increased. It was found that the pressure loss increases with an increase in the Reynolds number, nanoparticle density and particle volume fraction. However, the flow demonstrates enhancement in heat transfer which becomes greater with an increase in the Reynolds number for the nanofluid flow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  17. Jaafar NR, Mahadi NM, Mackeen MM, Illias RM, Murad AMA, Abu Bakar FD
    J Biotechnol, 2021 Mar 10;329:118-127.
    PMID: 33539893 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.01.019
    Dehydroquinase or 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD) reversibly cleaves 3-dehydroquinate to form 3-dehydroshikimate. Here, we describe the functional and structural features of a cold active type II 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase from the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 (GaDHQD). Functional studies showed that the enzyme was active at low temperatures (10-30 °C), but displayed maximal activity at 40 °C. Yet the enzyme was stable over a wide range of temperatures (10-70 °C) and between pH 6.0-10.0 with an optimum pH of 8.0. Interestingly, the enzyme was highly thermo-tolerant, denaturing only at approximately 84 °C. Three-dimensional structure analyses showed that the G. antarctica dehydroquinase (GaDHQD) possesses psychrophilic features in comparison with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts such as higher numbers of non-polar residues on the surface, lower numbers of arginine and higher numbers of glycine-residues with lower numbers of hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, GaDHQD shares some traits (i.e. total number of hydrogen bonds, number of proline residues and overall folding) with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Combined, these features contribute synergistically towards the enzyme's ability to function at both low and high temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  18. Ghosh HK
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Mar;23(3):179-80.
    PMID: 4240070
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  19. Mat Noor NA, Shafie S, Admon MA
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0250402.
    PMID: 33956793 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250402
    The heat and mass transfer on time dependent hydrodynamic squeeze flow of Jeffrey nanofluid across two plates over permeable medium in the slip condition with heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and chemical reaction are investigated. The impacts of Brownian motion and thermophoresis is examined in the Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Conversion of the governing partial differential equations to the ordinary differential equations is conducted via similarity transformation. The dimensionless equations are solved by imposing numerical method of Keller-box. The outputs are compared with previous reported works in the journals for the validation of the present outputs and found in proper agreement. The behavior of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration profiles by varying the pertinent parameters are examined. Findings portray that the acceleration of the velocity profile and the wall shear stress is due to the squeezing of plates. Furthermore, the velocity, temperature and concentration profile decline with boost in Hartmann number and ratio of relaxation to retardation times. It is discovered that the rate of heat transfer and temperature profile increase when viscous dissipation, thermophoresis and heat source/sink rises. In contrast, the increment of thermal radiation reduces the temperature and enhances the heat transfer rate. Besides, the mass transfer rate decelerates for increasing Brownian motion in nanofluid, while it elevates when chemical reaction and thermophoresis increases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
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