• 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • 2 Research Centre for Nano-Materials and Energy Technology (RCNMET), School of Engineering and Technology, Sunway University, No. 5, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 5 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, SIMATS, Chennai, 602105, India
PMID: 37971583 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-30726-y


Effective utilization and conservation of freshwater is a global concern due to the rapid population growth and industrial usage. To address this challenge, various approaches have been developed and implemented to convert brackish water into freshwater and meet the global water demand. This study introduces hexagram-shaped aluminum fins attached to a powder-coated basin to improve the freshwater production rate of stepped solar still. The experiment involved testing the modified stepped solar still (MSSS) equipped with hexagram fins and the conventional stepped solar still (CSSS) without hexagram fins during summer days at the Sathyamangalam location (11.49° N, 77.27° E). A mathematical model was used to analyze the performance of the solar stills, and the simulation results were validated by comparing CSSS and MSSS in terms of their freshwater production. The results indicate that the productivity of CSSS increased by 40% using hexagram fins, and the MSSS with hexagram fins produced a maximum of 4.45 l/m2 of fresh water daily. The annual performance of MSSS and CSSS in the experimental location reveals a 12.6% reduction in the payback period of the solar still due to the presence of fins. The study recommends using fins in solar stills in hot climates for efficient and cost-effective water desalination applications to achieve sustainable development objectives while reducing carbon emissions.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.