Environ Monit Assess, 2012 Jan;184(2):1001-14.
PMID: 21494831 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2016-8


Increasing urbanization and changes in land use in Langat river basin lead to adverse impacts on the environment compartment. One of the major challenges is in identifying sources of organic contaminants. This study presented the application of selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the pollution sources in Langat river basin based on the analysis of water and sediment samples collected from 24 stations, monitored for 14 organic contaminants from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sterols, and pesticides groups. The CA and DA enabled to group 24 monitoring sites into three groups of pollution source (industry and urban socioeconomic, agricultural activity, and urban/domestic sewage) with five major discriminating variables: naphthalene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, coprostanol, and cholesterol. PCA analysis, applied to water data sets, resulted in four latent factors explaining 79.0% of the total variance while sediment samples gave five latent factors with 77.6% explained variance. The varifactors (VFs) obtained from PCA indicated that sterols (coprostanol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and stigmastanol) are strongly correlated to domestic and urban sewage, PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene) from industrial and urban activities and chlorpyrifos correlated to samples nearby agricultural sites. The results demonstrated that chemometric techniques can be used for rapid assessment of water and sediment contaminations.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.