• 1 Department of Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur
Med J Malaysia, 1997 Sep;52(3):299-308; quiz 309.
PMID: 10968104


Typhoid fever (TF), a systemic prolonged febrile illness, continues to be a worldwide health problem especially in developing countries where there is poor sanitation and poor standards of personal hygiene. The worldwide incidence of TF is estimated to be approximately 16 million cases annually with 7 million cases occurring annually in SE Asia alone. More than 600,000 people die of the disease annually. The pathogenesis of TF is beginning to be understood. The clinical features and diagnosis of TF are well known. New diagnostic methods have yet to gain universal acceptance. Traditional treatment with the first-line antibiotics (i.e. chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) though still being used in most developing countries are gradually being replaced with shorter courses of treatment with third generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones especially with the growing incidence of multi-drug resistant S typhi strains (MDR-ST). MDR-ST strains are particularly common in the Indian subcontinent; Pakistan and China. The presently available vaccines are far from satisfactory in terms of safety, efficacy and costs. Newer vaccines have been developed and are presently undergoing clinical trials in human volunteers.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.