Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

  1. Annas S, Zamri-Saad M, Jesse FF, Zunita Z
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:88.
    PMID: 24721163 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-88
    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology; Carrier State/veterinary
  2. Balaram P, Kien PK, Ismail A
    Int J Med Microbiol, 2009 Mar;299(3):177-85.
    PMID: 18845475 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2008.08.004
    Bacterial persistence is of major concern worldwide in the control of a number of bacterial infections. The carriers who are asymptomatic act as reservoirs of the bacteria. Knowledge of the host response, of the persistence process, and of the potential of biological mediators as diagnostic markers is essential towards development of prophylactic and treatment modalities for these diseases. Immune mechanisms related to recognition and elimination of the bacteria play pivotal roles in the control of bacterial infections. The majority of the studies on bacterial infections detail the immune mechanisms in the active phase of infection, and reports on the immune status in carriers are scanty. The present review describes the role of recognition molecules (TLRs) and the immune mediators (cytokines) in bacterial persistence. It appears that the TLR-mediated induction of cytokine profiles differs in active infection and bacterial persistence, with an active Th1 response being beneficial for the clearance of a high load of bacteria and at the same time conducive for the persistence of low bacterial load. Immunomodulation aiming at stimulation of the immune responses should be carried out with care as it could give rise to a carrier state in individuals with low load of the bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/immunology*; Carrier State/microbiology*
  3. Chen ST, Puthucheary SD
    Trop Geogr Med, 1976 Sep;28(3):211-5.
    PMID: 1006789
    In Malysia, the proportion of children fully immunized againest diphtheria is generally low (20%). On the other hand, the Schick conversion rate rises with age and reaches 90% by 11 years of age. It is noted that asymptomatic carriers are an important epidemiological factor in diphtheria and that carrier rates for school children are high (prevalence of 7.5% while the rate of coloization with C. diphtheriae over a period of one year was 30%). Although immunization protects against clinical diphtheria, it does not prevent the carrier state. Thus, for the control of diphtheria, one should aim for 100% compliance. Some suggestions as to how higher levels of immunity may be achieved are described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/immunology; Carrier State/epidemiology
  4. Dutt AK, Tan Hock Joo
    Med J Malaya, 1971 Mar;25(3):205-7.
    PMID: 4253247
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State*
  5. Tull JC
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State
  6. Ismail A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2000 Jul;7(2):3-8.
    PMID: 22977383 MyJurnal
    For effective management of typhoid, diagnosis of the disease must be done with speed and accuracy. Development of such a test would require antigens that are specific for typhoid diagnosis. Attempts at finding the specific antigen have been carried out throughout the years. The finding of such an antigen can lead to carrier detection as well. Candidate antigens have been used in the development of antigen or antibody detection tests with variation in sensitivity and specificity. Further characterization and understanding of the candidate antigens combined with use of innovative technologies will allow for the ideal test for typhoid and typhoid carriers to be within reach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State
  7. Lopez CG
    Malays J Pathol, 1985 Aug;7:7-10.
    PMID: 3843253
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/epidemiology*
  8. Supramaniam V
    Med J Malaysia, 1981 Sep;36(3):136-41.
    PMID: 7035854
    The 1980 malaria notifications in Malaysian soldiers are analysed. The number of new cases notified was 964, giving an annual incidence of11.81/1000 soldiers. Sixty-three percent were falciparum and 36 percent were vivax infections. There were 48 relapses and recrudescences. Twenty-three carriers were detected on mass screening. The yield from mass screening was very low - 5.09/1000 screened. The current practice of chemotherapy, though generally acceptable, was unsuitable for a number of patients. Recommended regimens are not being adhered to. There were two cases ofcerebral malaria, one of whom died.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/epidemiology
  9. Sood Lr, Basu S
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 1979;45(4):595-604.
    PMID: 552816
    Salmonella weltevreden has been found to be one of the commonest Salmonella serotypes isolated from diverse sources in India and has also been isolated in a number of other countries. A phage typing scheme was developed for this serotype using a set of six typing phages. These phages had been selected out of 146 phage strains isolated and purified from stool samples of man, laboratory animals and other animals, sewage and surface water sources, and the lytic mutants of temperate phages form S. weltevreden. The phage typing scheme was applied systematically to type the 946 strains from India isolated during 1958-1974 and 148 strains originating from Australia, Burma, England, Gan Island, Holland, Hong Kong, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, The Philippines, Thailand, The United States and Vietnam during 1953-1971. The scheme was particularly studied to evaluate its utility in mapping the epidemiologically related strains from various sources. The S. weltevreden strains could be classified into ten phage types. Phage types 2 and 7 were found exclusively amongst Indian strains, type 6 from Vietnam and type 8 from Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. Phage types were found to be stable and consistent with the independent epidemiological data available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology
  10. Cheah WC, Cheong WH, Mahadevan S, Lai KP, Sivanandam S
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Dec;32(2):103-10.
    PMID: 614475
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/epidemiology
  11. Muhamad Harish S, Sim KS, Mohd Nor F, Mat Hussin H, Hamzah WM, Najimudin N, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2015;3(6).
    PMID: 26564035 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.01285-15
    We report here the complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi B/SF/13/03/195 obtained from a typhoid carrier, who is a food handler in Pasir Mas, Kelantan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State
  12. Le CF, Jefferies JM, Yusof MY, Sekaran SD, Clarke SC
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2012 Jun;10(6):707-19.
    PMID: 22734960 DOI: 10.1586/eri.12.54
    In Malaysia, various aspects of the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage and disease remain largely unclear due to the lack of supporting data. Although a number of relevant studies have been documented, their individual discrete findings are not sufficient to inform experts on pneumococcal epidemiology at a national level. Therefore, in this review we aim to bring together and systematically evaluate the key information regarding pneumococcal disease epidemiology in Malaysia and provide a comprehensive overview of the data. Major aspects discussed include pneumococcal carriage, disease incidence and prevalence, age factors, invasiveness of pneumococci, serotypes, molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility. Penicillin resistance is increasingly prevalent and studies suggest that the majority of pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumococcal disease in Malaysia are covered by currently available conjugate vaccines. Continued surveillance is needed to provide a better understanding of pneumococcal epidemiology in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology; Carrier State/epidemiology*
  13. Nor Shamsudin M, Sekawi Z, van Belkum A, Neela V
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2008 Sep;57(Pt 9):1180-1181.
    PMID: 18719195 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.47844-0
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology*; Carrier State/epidemiology
  14. Shah-Majid M, Nihayah M
    Vet. Rec., 1987 Aug 15;121(7):153.
    PMID: 3660547
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/epidemiology; Carrier State/veterinary
  15. Norazah A, Lim VKE, Munirah SN, Kamel AGM
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Jun;58(2):255-61.
    PMID: 14569746
    The carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in the community were determined. Nasal, throat and axillary swabs were taken from 100 healthy adults and 90 disabled nursing home inmates. Antibiotic disc susceptibility testing was conducted following the NCCLS method. Staphylococcus aureus carriage was noted in 29% of healthy adults and 47.7% of nursing home inmates. Out of 79 strains, resistance to antibiotics were as follows; penicillin (92.4%), genetamicin (2.5%), tetracycline (6.3%), fusidic acid (11.3%), erythromycin (3.8%), pefloxacin (5.1%), mupirocin (3.8%), amikacin (3.8%), ciprofloxacin (2.5%) and chloramphenicol (2.5%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not isolated. Multiple colonizations and multi-antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus were shown to occur in healthy individuals without risk factors and not previously hospitalized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology*; Carrier State/epidemiology*
  16. Mohd Sazlly Lim S, Wong PL, Sulaiman H, Atiya N, Hisham Shunmugam R, Liew SM
    J. Hosp. Infect., 2019 May;102(1):8-16.
    PMID: 30653999 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2019.01.012
    BACKGROUND: β-Lactamase resistance among certain Gram-negative bacteria has been associated with increased mortality, length of hospitalization, and hospital costs.

    AIM: To identify and critically appraise existing clinical prediction models of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EKP) infection or colonization.

    METHODS: Electronic databases, reference lists, and citations were searched from inception to April 2018. Papers were included in any language describing the development or validation, or both, of models and scores to predict the risk of ESBL-EKP infection or colonization.

    FINDINGS: In all, 1795 references were screened, of which four articles were included in the review. The included studies were carried out in different geographical locations with differing study designs, and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most if not all studies lacked external validation and blinding of reviewers during the evaluation of the predictor variables and outcome. All studies excluded missing data and most studies did not report the number of patients excluded due to missing data. Fifteen predictors of infection or colonization with ESBL-EKP were identified. Commonly included predictors were previous antibiotic use, previous hospitalization, transfer from another healthcare facility, and previous procedures (urinary catheterization and invasive procedures).

    CONCLUSION: Due to limitations and variations in the study design, clinicians would have to take these differences into consideration when deciding on how to use these models in clinical practice. Due to lack of external validation, the generalizability of these models remains a question. Therefore, further external validation in local settings is needed to confirm the usefulness of these models in supporting decision-making.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology*; Carrier State/epidemiology*
  17. Neela V, Ehsanollah GR, Zamberi S, Van Belkum A, Mariana NS
    Int J Infect Dis, 2009 May;13(3):e131-2.
    PMID: 18955004 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2008.07.009
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology*; Carrier State/epidemiology
  18. Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam H, van Wamel W, van Belkum A, Hamat RA, Neela VK
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017 Mar;36(3):451-458.
    PMID: 27815779 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-016-2817-3
    The humoral immune response against 43 staphylococcal antigens was compared among hospitalized patients where none of them had any staphylococcal infection on the day of admission with or without nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Fifty-nine carriers and 59 matched non-carriers were studied. The carriers harbored S. aureus of 35 different spa types, including three t037/ST239 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (5.1%). Among the 118 patients, 31 acquired S. aureus during hospitalization. In colonized and non-colonized patients, unique patterns of S. aureus-specific immune responses were observed. The mean fluorescence indices (MFIs) of antibodies against 36/43 (83.7%) antigens were seen to be elevated among carriers. The MFI among carriers with acquisition was significantly higher for staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 5 (SSL5, p = 0.028) when compared to carriers without acquisition. High antibody levels against staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) among carriers illustrate its role as a superantigen in both infection and colonization. We also report a dynamic immune response in S. aureus-carrying patients against the recently reported formyl peptide receptor-like inhibitory (FLIPr)-like protein. In the current study, the dynamics of antibodies against staphylococcal antigens among carrier patients seem quite similar to non-carrier patients. To better understand the dynamic immunogenicity during S. aureus infection and colonization, artificial colonization studies and investigation of the changes in the levels of antibodies against other staphylococcal antigens are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/immunology*; Carrier State/microbiology
  19. Shafarin MS, Zamri-Saad M, Khairani BS, Saharee AA
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2008 Jun;40(5):335-40.
    PMID: 18509941
    This report describes the proliferation and transmission patterns of Pasteurella multocida B:2 among stressful goats, created through dexamethasone injections. Thirty seven clinically healthy adult goats were divided into three groups consisted of 15 goats in group A, 11 goats in group B and the remaining 11 in group C. At the start of the study, all goats of group A were exposed intranasally to 1.97 x 10(10) CFU/ml of live P multocida B:2. Dexamethasone was immediately administered intramuscularly for 3 consecutive days at a dosage rate of 1 mg/kg. The exposed goats were observed for signs of HS for a period of 1 month. At the end of the 1-month period, 11 goats from group B were introduced into and commingled with the surviving goats of group A before all goats from both groups were immediately injected intramuscularly with dexamethasone for 3 consecutive days. The treatment with dexamethasone was then carried out at monthly interval throughout the 3-month study period. Goats of group C were kept separately as negative control. Three surviving goats from each group were killed at 2-week interval for a complete post-mortem examination. Two (13%) goats of group A were killed within 24 hours after intranasal exposure to P multocida B:2 while another two (13%) goats from the same group were killed on day 40, approximately 10 days after the second dexamethasone injection. All four goats showed signs and lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bacteraemia was detected in 3 goats of group A that were having rectal temperature higher than 41degrees C. The P. multocida B:2 isolation pattern was closely associated with dexamethasone injections when significantly (p < 0.05) higher rate of isolations from both groups were observed after each dexamethasone injection. Transmission of P multocida B:2 from goats of group A to group B was successful when P multocida B:2 was isolated from goats of group B for a period of 28 days. There was a strong correlation between dexamethasone injections, rate of bacterial isolation and serum cortisol level. The IgG level showed an increasing trend 2 weeks after exposure to P multocida B:2 and remained high throughout the study period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State/microbiology; Carrier State/transmission; Carrier State/veterinary*
  20. Nallusamy R
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):442-5.
    PMID: 10971993
    Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carrier State
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