• 1 Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, Mersin, 33800, Turkey.
  • 2 Faculty of Business, Multimedia University, Melaka, 75450, Malaysia.
  • 3 Centre of Real Estate Studies, Department of Real Estate, Faculty of Geoinformation & Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, 81310, Malaysia.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Jan;23(2):1916-28.
PMID: 26408117 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5447-x


The main objective of this study is to examine the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an environment indicator and GDP from tourism as the economic indicator. To achieve this goal, an environmental degradation model is established during the period of 1988-2008 for 144 countries. The results from the time series generalized method of moments (GMM) and the system panel GMM revealed that the number of countries that have a negative relationship between the ecological footprint and its determinants (GDP growth from tourism, energy consumption, trade openness, and urbanization) is more existent in the upper middle- and high-income countries. Moreover, the EKC hypothesis is more present in the upper middle- and high-income countries than the other income countries. From the outcome of this research, a number of policy recommendations were provided for the investigated countries.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.