Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 144 in total

  1. Yusrina Andu, Muhammad Hisyam Lee, Zakariya Yahya Algamal
    MATEMATIKA, 2019;35(2):139-147.
    The fast-growing urbanization has contributed to the construction sector be- coming one of the major sectors traded in the world stock market. In general, non- stationarity is highly related to most of the stock market price pattern. Even though stationarity transformation is a common approach, yet this may prompt to originality loss of the data. Hence, the non-transformation technique using a generalized dynamic principal component (GDPC) were considered for this study. Comparison of GDPC was performed with two transformed principal component techniques. This is pertinent as to observe a larger perspective of both techniques. Thus, the latest weekly two-years observations of nine constructions stock market price from seven different countries were applied. The data was tested for stationarity before performing the analysis. As a re- sult, the mean squared error in the non-transformed technique shows eight lowest values. Similarly, eight construction stock market prices had the highest percentage of explained variance. In conclusion, a non-transformed technique can also present a better result outcome without the stationarity transformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization
  2. Hirschman C
    Demography, 1976 Nov;13(4):445-61.
    PMID: 992169
    The pace of urbanization in Peninsular Malaysia was slower in the most recent intercensal interval, 1957 to 1970, than in the previous period, 1947 to 1957. Most of the small change in the rural-urban balance from 1957 to 1970 appears due to the growth of towns into the urban classification rather than to a redistribution of population into the previous urban settlements. A number of towns in Peninsular Malaysia do show exceptional growth from 1957 to 1970, but there seems to be no clear relationship between a city's size and its subsequent growth. The rural areas on the outskirts of the largest cities do show rapid growth, especially the periphery of the capital city. It appears that neither the classic model of urbanization based upon Western experience nor the over-urbanization thesis explain the urbanization process in Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  3. Patrick R, Dietrich U
    Ecohealth, 2016 12;13(4):808-812.
    PMID: 27650715
    In Oceania, a region challenged by rapid urbanisation and climate change, integrative frameworks are required to enable effective actions on health and sustainability. The Ecohealth approach provides a framework for practice that acknowledges human health is intrinsically linked to ecosystem health. This research communication reports on a study involving interviews with twenty-seven leading health and sustainability thinkers from Oceania and across the globe. In examining their ideas for action, the report presents the study findings in relation to the guiding principles of Ecohealth: systems thinking, transdisciplinarity, participation, sustainability, equity and knowledge-to-action. Implications for Ecohealth practitioners working in Oceania are considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  4. Lawrence RJ, Gatzweiler FW
    J Urban Health, 2017 08;94(4):592-596.
    PMID: 28695402 DOI: 10.1007/s11524-017-0182-x
    The current disconnection between access to increasing amounts of data about urbanization, health, and other global changes and the conflicting meanings and values of that data has created uncertainty and reduced the ability of people to act upon available information which they do not necessarily understand. We see a disconnection between increasing data availability and data processing capability and capacity. In response to this disconnection, modeling has been attributed an important role in international and national research programs in order to predict the future based on past and recent trends. Predictive models are often data heavy and founded on assumptions which are difficult to verify, especially regarding urban health issues in specific contexts. Producing large volumes of data warrants debate about what data are prerequisites for better understanding human health in changing urban environments. Another concern is how data and information can be used to apply knowledge. Making sense of empirical knowledge requires a new transdisciplinary knowledge domain created by a commitment to convergence between researchers in multiple academic disciplines and other actors and institutions in cities. Disciplinary-based researchers are no longer the sole producers of empirical knowledge. Today, diverse kinds of knowledge are becoming an emergent product of multiple societal stakeholders acting collectively to address challenges that impact on their habitat, their livelihood, and their health. Insights from complexity science also require a fundamental rethinking of the role and responsibility of human agency while admitting rather than denying complexity and radical uncertainty.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  5. Raza SA, Qureshi MA, Ahmed M, Qaiser S, Ali R, Ahmed F
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jan;28(2):1426-1442.
    PMID: 32840747 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10179-3
    The study aims to analyze two objectives: first is to explore the non-linear relationship between tourism development, economic growth, urbanization, and environmental degradation, and also to analyze the threshold level of the contribution of tourism development on environmental degradation in top tourist arrival destinations. We applied the newly proposed econometric method panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) framework with two regimes on yearly panel data from 1995 to 2017. Findings suggest that the relationship between tourism development and environmental degradation is non-linear and regime dependent. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the relationship above the threshold level is negative and significant, while below the threshold, tourism development is positive and significant effect on environmental degradation. Tourism development and environmental degradation also exhibit the inverted U-shape relationship meaning that at a particular point, increase in tourism development increases in environmental degradation but after a particular point, increase in tourism development decreases the environmental degradation. The economic growth and urbanization also portray a non-linear and regime-dependent relationship with environmental degradation. The study assists policies and empirical information.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  6. Jia Y, Zheng F, Maier HR, Ostfeld A, Creaco E, Savic D, et al.
    Water Res, 2021 Sep 01;202:117419.
    PMID: 34274902 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117419
    Urban sewer networks (SNs) are increasingly facing water quality issues as a result of many challenges, such as population growth, urbanization and climate change. A promising way to addressing these issues is by developing and using water quality models. Many of these models have been developed in recent years to facilitate the management of SNs. Given the proliferation of different water quality models and the promise they have shown, it is timely to assess the state-of-the-art in this field, to identify potential challenges and suggest future research directions. In this review, model types, modeled quality parameters, modeling purpose, data availability, type of case studies and model performance evaluation are critically analyzed and discussed based on a review of 110 papers published between 2010 and 2019. The review identified that applications of empirical and kinetic models dominate those of data-driven models for addressing water quality issues. The majority of models are developed for prediction and process understanding using experimental or field sampled data. While many models have been applied to real problems, the corresponding prediction accuracies are overall moderate or, in some cases, low, especially when dealing with larger SNs. The review also identified the most common issues associated with water quality modeling of SNs and based on these proposed several future research directions. These include the identification of appropriate data resolutions for the development of different SN models, the need and opportunity to develop hybrid SN models and the improvement of SN model transferability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  7. Ali HS, Law SH, Zannah TI
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Jun;23(12):12435-43.
    PMID: 26983914 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6437-3
    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  8. Han Y, Bai J, Zhang Z, Wu T, Chen P, Sun G, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Nov 10;690:748-759.
    PMID: 31302540 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.508
    Many species of birds gradually adapt to urbanization and colonize cities successfully. However, their nest site selection and competitive relationship in an urban community remain little known. Understanding the impact of urbanization on birds and the competitive relationship has important implications for the conservation and management of wildlife in urban ecosystems. Here, we undertook a systematic study to quantify nests in all species of birds in an urbanizing area of Nanchang, China. A total of 363 nests were detected in surveys including 340 nests of 16 bird species and 23 unidentified species nests. We mainly analyzed 5 dominant breeding birds with a sample size of >10 during the two breeding seasons (From April to July in 2016 and 2017), which included the light-vented bulbul, Chinese blackbird, scaly-breasted munia, spotted dove and grey-capped greenfinch. Most birds (93.66%) nested in the tree of artificial green belts, which seems to be the best breeding habitat for urban birds. Our results suggested that birds' breeding success relies on the trade-off between the benefit and the expense of specific stresses from habitats. The nest site selection of birds is also affected by the life habit of urban predators. Furthermore, competition among species can influence their distributions and utilization of environmental resources when birds nest in cities. We confirmed that the niche differentiation of five bird species in an urban environment makes them coexist successfully by utilizing various resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  9. Godil DI, Ahmad P, Ashraf MS, Sarwat S, Sharif A, Shabib-Ul-Hasan S, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 May;28(17):21486-21498.
    PMID: 33415625 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11839-0
    This study is a scholarly effort to broaden the existing literature on the impact of transportation services, urbanization, and financial development on ecological footprints in Pakistan. Data used in this study covers the period of 39 years from 1980 to 2018. This study adopted the QARDL model to tackle the non-linear association of variables and test their long-run stability across the different quantiles. The findings of this study indicated a significant negative association of transportation services and financial development with ecological footprints in Pakistan at almost all quantiles whereas, the urban population was found to be positively associated with the ecological footprint in Pakistan. Results also justify the existence of the EKC hypothesis in the scenario of Pakistan. Policymakers are advised to frame strategies for investors to invest more in eco-friendly projects to curtail the ecological footprints in Pakistan. Minimizing the dependency of the transportation sector on fossil fuel, and increased use of energy-efficient appliances in the urban population would be beneficial to control the negative influence on ecological footprints in Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  10. Yue L, Xue D, Draz MU, Ahmad F, Li J, Shahzad F, et al.
    PMID: 31936543 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17020446
    Urbanization has made tremendous contributions to China's economic development since its economic reforms and opening up. At the same time, population agglomeration has aggravated environmental pollution and posed serious challenges to China's environment. This article empirically investigates the impacts of China's urbanization on eco-efficiency, comprehensively reflecting economic growth, resource input, and waste discharge. We first measured the provincial eco-efficiency in China from 2005 to 2015 using the Super Slack-Based model (Super-SBM). We then constructed a spatial model to empirically analyze the effects of urbanization on eco-efficiency at the national level, and at four regional levels. The results indicated that the regional eco-efficiency in China has fluctuated, but is generally improving, and that a gap between regions was evident, with a trend toward further gap expansion. We observed an effect of spatial spillover in eco-efficiency, which was significant and positive for the whole country, except for the western region. The influence of urbanization on China's eco-efficiency exhibited a U-curve relationship. The changing trend in the eastern, central, and western regions was the same as that in the whole country; however, the trend exhibited an inverted U-curve relationship in the northeastern region. To the best of our knowledge, covering a time period of 2005-2015, this article is the first of its kind to study the impact of urbanization on eco-efficiency in China at both the national and regional levels. This study may help policy-makers to create sustainable policies that could be helpful in balancing urbanization and the ecological environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  11. Yang J, Siri JG, Remais JV, Cheng Q, Zhang H, Chan KKY, et al.
    Lancet, 2018 05 26;391(10135):2140-2184.
    PMID: 29678340 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30486-0
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  12. Ali S, Yusop Z, Kaliappan SR, Chin L
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Apr;27(11):11671-11682.
    PMID: 31970640 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07768-7
    The study aims to address the dynamic common correlated effects of trade openness, FDI, and institutional performance on environmental quality in OIC countries. Mostly, pollutants like CO2 and SO2 emissions are considered as the environmental indicators. However, for this study, we have selected ecological footprint as the indicator of environmental quality. The new econometric approach Dynamic Common Correlated Effects (DCCE) by Chudik and Pesaran (2015) has been used to measure the cross-sectional dependence among cross-sectional units. Results confirm that previous techniques for long panel data, like MG and PMG, give ambiguous outcomes in the presence of cross-sectional dependence. According to DCCE estimation, trade openness, FDI, and urbanization have a positive and significant relationship with ecological footprint while a significant and negative association is found between institutional performance and ecological footprint. The OIC countries must encourage green technology, clean production, and improved institutions for sustainable development and better environmental quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization
  13. Solarin SA, Nathaniel SP, Bekun FV, Okunola AM, Alhassan A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Apr;28(14):17942-17959.
    PMID: 33410031 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11637-8
    Studies have shown that factors like trade, urbanization, and economic growth may increase the ecological footprint (EFP) since ecological distortions are mainly human-induced. Therefore, this study explores the effect of economic growth and urbanization on the EFP, accounting for foreign direct investment and trade in Nigeria, using data from 1977 to 2016. This study used the EFP variable as against the CO2 emissions used in the previous studies since the former is a more comprehensive and extensive measure of environmental quality. We apply the novel dynamic autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) simulations for model estimation, the Bayer and Hanck J Time Ser Anal 34: 83-95, (2013) combined cointegration, and the ARDL bounds test for cointegration. Although the results affirmed the presence of long-run relationship among the variables, economic growth deteriorates the environment in the short run, while urbanization exacts no harmful impact. In the long run, FDI and trade deteriorate the environment while economic growth adds to environmental quality. It is recommended that policymakers strengthen the existing environmental regulations to curtail harmful trade and provide rural infrastructures to abate urban anomaly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization
  14. Zhang L, Li Z, Kirikkaleli D, Adebayo TS, Adeshola I, Akinsola GD
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 May;28(20):26030-26044.
    PMID: 33481200 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12430-x
    One of humanity's most significant problems in the twenty-first century revolves around how to balance the mitigation of environmental pollution while achieving sustainable economic development. Despite increased awareness and dedication to climate change, the planet is still seeing a drastic decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions. This study explores the long-run and causal impact of economic growth, financial development, urbanization, and gross capital formation on Malaysia's CO2 emissions based on the STIRPAT framework. The current paper employs recently developed econometric techniques such as Maki co-integration, auto-regressive distribution lag (ARDL), fully modified OLS (FMOLS), dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS), and wavelet coherence and gradual shift causality tests to investigate these interconnections. The advantage of the gradual shift causality test is that it can capture the causality in the presence of a structural break(s). The findings from the Maki co-integration and ARDL bounds tests reveal evidence of cointegration among the variables. The ARDL test reveals that economic growth, gross capital formation, and urbanization exert a positive impact on CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the wavelet coherence test reveals that there is a significant dependency between CO2 emissions and economic growth, gross capital formation, and urbanization. The Toda Yamamoto and Gradual shift causality tests reveal that there is a (a) unidirectional causality from urbanization to CO2 emissions, (b) unidirectional causality from economic growth to CO2 emissions, and (c) unidirectional causality from gross capital formation to CO2 emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization
  15. Solarin SA, Lean HH
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Sep;23(18):18753-65.
    PMID: 27314422 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7063-9
    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of natural gas consumption, output, and urbanization on CO2 emission in China and India for the period, 1965-2013. A cointegraton test, which provides for endogenously determined structural breaks, has been applied to examine the long-run relationship and to investigate the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the two countries. The presence of causal relationship between the variables is also investigated. The findings show that there is a long-run relationship in the variables and natural gas, real GDP, and urbanization have long-run positive impact on emission in both countries. There is no evidence for EKC in China and India. The findings further suggest that there is a long-run feedback relationship between the variables. The policy inferences of these findings are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  16. Siri JG, Newell B, Proust K, Capon A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 Mar;28(2 Suppl):15S-27S.
    PMID: 26219559 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515595694
    Extreme events, both natural and anthropogenic, increasingly affect cities in terms of economic losses and impacts on health and well-being. Most people now live in cities, and Asian cities, in particular, are experiencing growth on unprecedented scales. Meanwhile, the economic and health consequences of climate-related events are worsening, a trend projected to continue. Urbanization, climate change and other geophysical and social forces interact with urban systems in ways that give rise to complex and in many cases synergistic relationships. Such effects may be mediated by location, scale, density, or connectivity, and also involve feedbacks and cascading outcomes. In this context, traditional, siloed, reductionist approaches to understanding and dealing with extreme events are unlikely to be adequate. Systems approaches to mitigation, management and response for extreme events offer a more effective way forward. Well-managed urban systems can decrease risk and increase resilience in the face of such events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
  17. Sanusi MSM, Ramli AT, Hassan WMSW, Lee MH, Izham A, Said MN, et al.
    Environ Int, 2017 07;104:91-101.
    PMID: 28412010 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.01.009
    Kuala Lumpur has been undergoing rapid urbanisation process, mainly in infrastructure development. The opening of new township and residential in former tin mining areas, particularly in the heavy mineral- or tin-bearing alluvial soil in Kuala Lumpur, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Construction practices, i.e. reclamation and dredging in these areas are potential to enhance the radioactivity levels of soil and subsequently, increase the existing background gamma radiation levels. This situation is worsened with the utilisation of tin tailings as construction materials apart from unavoidable soil pollutions due to naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction materials, e.g. granitic aggregate, cement and red clay brick. This study was conducted to assess the urbanisation impacts on background gamma radiation in Kuala Lumpur. The study found that the mean value of measured dose rate was 251±6nGyh-1(156-392nGyh-1) and 4 times higher than the world average value. High radioactivity levels of238U (95±12Bqkg-1),232Th (191±23Bqkg-1,) and40K (727±130Bqkg-1) in soil were identified as the major source of high radiation exposure. Based on statistical ANOVA, t-test, and analyses of cumulative probability distribution, this study has statistically verified the dose enhancements in the background radiation. The effective dose was estimated to be 0.31±0.01mSvy-1per man. The recommended ICRP reference level (1-20mSvy-1) is applicable to the involved existing exposure situation in this study. The estimated effective dose in this study is lower than the ICRP reference level and too low to cause deterministic radiation effects. Nevertheless based on estimations of lifetime radiation exposure risks, this study found that there was small probability for individual in Kuala Lumpur being diagnosed with cancer and dying of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urbanization*
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