The field of nanotechnology mainly encompasses with biology, physics, chemistry and material sciences and it develops novel therapeutic nanosized materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The biological syntheses of nanoparticles are being carried out by different macro-microscopic organisms such as plant, bacteria, fungi, seaweeds and microalgae. The biosynthesized nanomaterials have been effectively controlling the various endemic diseases with less adverse effect. Plant contains abundant natural compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and other nutritional compounds. These natural products are derived from various parts of plant such as leaves, stems, roots shoots, flowers, barks, and seeds. Recently, many studies have proved that the plant extracts act as a potential precursor for the synthesis of nanomaterial in non-hazardous ways. Since the plant extract contains various secondary metabolites, it acts as reducing and stabilizing agents for the bioreduction reaction to synthesized novel metallic nanoparticles. The non-biological methods (chemical and physical) are used in the synthesis of nanoparticles, which has a serious hazardous and high toxicity for living organisms. In addition, the biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is inexpensive, single step and eco-friendly methods. The plants are used successfully in the synthesis of various greener nanoparticles such as cobalt, copper, silver, gold, palladium, platinum, zinc oxide and magnetite. Also, the plant mediated nanoparticles are potential remedy for various diseases such as malaria, cancer, HIV, hepatitis and other acute diseases.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.