Volatile oils of Aquilaria malaccensis Benth. (Thymelaeaceae) from Malaysia were obtained by hydrodistillation and subjected to detailed GC-FID and GC/MS analyses to determine possible similarities and differences in their chemical composition in comparison with the commercial oil. A total of thirty-one compounds were identified compared with twenty-nine identified in the commercial oil. The major compounds identified were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (32.1%), jinkoh-eremol (6.5%) and alpha-guaiene (5.8%), while the major compounds in the commercial oil were alpha-guaiene (10.3%), caryophellene oxide (8.6%), and eudesmol (3.2%). The results of the present study showed that more than nine sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were present, which is more than previously reported. Analysis also showed that the number of oxygenated sesquiterpenes in this study were much less than previously reported. Among the compounds detected were alpha-guaiene, beta-agarofuran, alpha-bulnesene, jinkoh-eremol, kusunol, selina-3,11-dien-9-one, oxo-agarospirol and guaia-1 (10), 11-dien-15,2-olide.
Two poorly studied, morphologically allied Alpinia species endemic to Borneo, viz., A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii, were investigated here for their rhizome essential oil. The oil compositions and antimicrobial activities were compared with those of A. galanga, a better known plant. A fair number of compounds were identified in the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, with large differences in the oil composition between the three species. The rhizome oil of A. galanga was rich in 1,8-cineole (29.8%), while those of A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii were both found to be extremely rich in (E)-methyl cinnamate (36.4 and 67.8%, resp.). The three oils were screened for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungal species. The efficiency of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus var. aureus was found to decline in the order of A. nieuwenhuizii>A. ligulata ∼ A. galanga, while that of Escherichia coli decreased in the order of A. galanga>A. nieuwenhuzii ∼ A. ligulata. Only the A. galanga oil inhibited the other bacteria and the fungi tested.
Human has been evolving in a natural environment over a long time; thus, he is habitual to adapt it. Green spaces are obligatory landscapes in an urban structure that provide a natural environment and accelerate other life events. In contrast, unplanned urbanization, and conversion from green to grey structures have damaged natural environmental resources. Studies through different angles have highlighted the importance of urban green spaces for human well-being but now need to identify their role according to the potential. The demands of urban green spaces may differ with the change of population size, types of grey structure, urban expansion, the altitude of the place, and geographical location. Therefore, this systematic review aims to analyse the significance of urban green spaces for human well-being. The study opted for a systematic process during the selection and organization of studies for this review. After analysing, 46 studies were finalized with the consensus of three review authors. Accordingly, literature was analysed under the central theme of "Urban Green Spaces for Human Well-being." Human Well-being was assessed under six sub-themes; physical, psychological, mental, social, subjective, and environmental well-being. The review concluded that urban green spaces are the primary pillar for a sustainable urban place and human well-being due to highly positive and positive correlations. Moreover, the study did not find any demarcation line between green spaces and grey structures according to any specific need. Therefore, the study suggested that the role of urban green spaces for human well-being should be analysed according to their potential and required optimal ratio under different communities' urban specific environments and social behaviour.
The possibility of achieving many electrons per absorbed photon of sufficient energy by quantum dots (QDs) drives the motivation to build high performance quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs). Although performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with similar device configuration as that of QDSCs, has significantly improved in the last two decades QDSCs are yet to demonstrate impressive device performances despite the remarkable features of QDs as light harvesters. We investigated the fundamental differences in the optical properties of QDs and dyes using DFT calculations to get insights on the inferior performance of QDSCs. The CdSe QDs and the ruthenium bipyridyl dicarboxylic acid dye (N3) were used as typical examples in this study. Based on a generalized equation of state correlating material properties and photoconversion efficiency, we calculated ground and excited state properties of these absorbers at the B3LYP/lanl2dz level of DFT and analyzed them on the basis of the device performance. Five missing links have been identified in the study which provides numerous insights into building high efficiency QDSCs. They are (i) fundamental differences in the emitting states of the QDs in the strong and weak confinement regimes were observed, which explained successfully the performance differences; (ii) the crucial role of bifunctional ligands that bind the QDs and the photo-electrode was identified; in most cases use of bifunctional ligands does not lead to a QD enabled widening of the absorption of the photo-electrode; (iii) wide QDs size distribution further hinders efficient electron injections; (iv) wide absorption cross-section of QDs favours photon harvesting; and (v) the role of redox potential of the electrolyte in the QD reduction process.
This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of stress, types of stressors, consequences of stress and stress relievers among undergraduate dental students at the University of Malaya during the different years of study. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire among Bachelor of Dental Surgery students during Years 2 to 5. A 100% response rate was obtained. The instrument asked questions about the preceding academic year. The results of the questionnaire reveal the prevalence of stress was 100%. The most common cause of stress among preclinical students was academic concerns and among clinical students was patient management and clinical performance. Physical and behavioral problems were reported as consequences of stress. Most students overcame stress by having strong interpersonal relationships.
L-asparaginase (LA) catalyzes the degradation of asparagine, an essential amino acid for leukemic cells, into ammonia and aspartate. Owing to its ability to inhibit protein biosynthesis in lymphoblasts, LA is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Different isozymes of this enzyme have been isolated from a wide range of organisms, including plants and terrestrial and marine microorganisms. Pieces of information about the three-dimensional structure of L-asparaginase from Escherichia coli and Erwinia sp. have identified residues that are essential for catalytic activity. This review catalogues the major sources of L-asparaginase, the methods of its production through the solid state (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentation, purification, and characterization as well as its biological roles. In the same breath, this article explores both the past and present applications of this important enzyme and discusses its future prospects.
The study explored on the commonly available weed plant Commelina nudiflora which has potential in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The different polar solvents such as ethanol, chloroform, dichloromethane, hexane and aqueous were used for the soxhlet extraction. The extracts were identified pharmacologically as important bioactive compounds and their potential free radical scavenging activities, and antimicrobial properties were studied. C. nudiflora extracts were monitored on their in-vitro antioxidant ability by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay. Aqueous extract shows significant free radical scavenging activity of 63.4 mg/GAE and 49.10 mg/g in DPPH and ABTS respectively. Furthermore, the aqueous crude extract was used in antibacterial studies, which shows the highest inhibitory activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among all the extracts, aqueous extract of C. nudiflora has significant control over free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of the growth of food pathogenic bacteria. Also, the aqueous extract contains abundance of phenolics and flavonoids higher than other extracts. This study explored weed plant C. nudiflora as a potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial efficacy and identified various therapeutic value bioactive compounds from GC-MS analysis.
A new 3-dimensional (3D) network of crosslinked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface has been described in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT network has been characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry which results the establishment of direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the high biological activity and stability is exhibited by the immobilized HRP and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox centre of HRP was observed at about -0.355 and -0.275V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KSand electron transfer co-efficient α were found as 0.57s-1and 0.42, respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2was exhibited by the developed biosensor. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10-7to 1.2×10-4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10-8M at 3σ. The Michaelies-Menten constant Kapp M value is estimated to be 0.19mM. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability.
In this work, the direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb), which was immobilized on carbonyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and deposited onto a gold (Au) electrode has been described. The synthesis of the network of crosslinked SWCNT/Hb was done with the help of crosslinking agent EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide). The UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy of SWCNT/Hb networks showed that Hb maintained its natural structure and kept good stability. In addition with this, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) illustrated that SWCNT/Hb networks had a featured layered structure and Hb being strongly liked with SWCNT surface. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study and to optimize the performance of the resulting modified electrode. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) responses of SWCNT/Hb networks in pH 7.0 exhibit prominent redox couple for the FeIII/II redox process with a midpoint potential of -0.46 V and -0.34, cathodic and anodic respectively. Furthermore, SWCNT/Hb networks are utilized for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Electrochemical measurements reveal that the resulting SWCNT/Hb electrodes display high electrocatalytic activity to H2O2 with high sensitivity, wide linear range, and low detection limit. Overall, the electrochemical results are due to excellent biocompatibility and excellent electron transport efficiency of CNT as well as high Hb loading and synergistic catalytic effect of the modified electrode toward H2O2.
A multiporous nanofiber (MPNFs) of SnO₂ and chitosan has been used for the immobilization of a redox protein, hemoglobin (Hb), onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The multiporous nanofiber of SnO₂ that has very high surface area is synthesized by using electrospinning technique through controlling the tin precursor concentration. Since the constructed MPNFs of SnO₂ exposes very high surface area, it increases the efficiency for biomolecule-loading. The morphology of fabricated electrodes is examined by SEM observation and the absorbance spectra of Hb/(MPNFs) of SnO₂ are studied by UV-Vis analysis. Cyclic Voltammetry and amperometry are employed to study and optimize the performance of the resulting fabricated electrode. After fabrication of the electrode with the Hb and MPNFs of SnO₂, a direct electron transfer between the protein's redox centre and the glassy carbon electrode was established. The modified electrode has showed a couple of redox peak located at -0.29 V and -0.18 V and found to be sensitive to H₂O₂. The fabricated electrode also exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H₂O₂. The catalysis currents increased linearly to the H₂O₂ concentration in a wide range of 5.0×10-6-1.5×10-4 M. Overall experimental results show that MPNFs of SnO₂ has a role towards the enhancement of the electroactivity of Hb at the electrode surface. Thus the MPNFs of SnO₂ is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.
Depression is the most common illness observed in the elderly, adults, and children. Antidepressants prescribed are usually synthetic drugs and these can sometimes cause a wide range of unpleasant side effects. Current research is focussed on natural products from plants as they are a rich source of potent new drug leads. Besides Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), the plants studied include Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower), Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L. Harman, harmol, harmine, harmalol and harmaline are indole alkaloids isolated from P. incarnata, while mitragynine is isolated from M. speciosa. The structure of isolated compounds from P. methysticum G. Forst and V. officinalis L. contains an indole moiety. The indole moiety is related to the neurotransmitter serotonin which is widely implicated for brain function and cognition as the endogenous receptor agonist. An imbalance in serotonin levels may influence mood in a way that leads to depression. The moiety is present in a number of antidepressants already on the market. Hence, the objective of this review is to discuss bioactive compounds containing the indole moiety from plants that can serve as potent antidepressants.
Eleven compounds were identified during profiling of polyphenols by UPLC-QTOF/MS. In abundance was quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside in M. malabathricum ethanolic leaves extract while 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-glucoside was present in the leaves extract of M. decenfidum (its rare variety). TPC and TFC were significantly higher in M. decemfidum extract than M. malabathricum extract. During DPPH, FRAF and β-carotene bleaching assays, M. decemfidum extract exhibited greater antioxidant activity compared to M. malabathricum extract. Effect of M. malabathricum and M. decemfidum extracts on viability of MDA-MB-231 cell at concentrations 6.25-100 μg/mL were evaluated for 24, 48 and 72 h. After 48 and 72 h treatment, M. malabathricum and M. decemfidum leaves extracts exhibited significant activity in inhibiting MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line with M. malabathricum extract being more cytotoxic. M. malabathricum and M. imbricatum serves as potential daily dietary source of natural phenolics and to improve chemotherapeutic effectiveness.
This study is focusing to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with improved cellular adhesion profiles and stability. The combination of HEC and PVA were synthesized using freeze-drying technique and characterized using SEM, ATR-FTIR, TGA, DSC, and UTM. Pore size of HEC/PVA (2-40 μm) scaffolds showed diameter in a range of both pure HEC (2-20 μm) and PVA (14-70 μm). All scaffolds revealed high porosity above 85%. The water uptake of HEC was controlled by PVA cooperation in the polymer matrix. After 7 days, all blended scaffolds showed low degradation rate with the increased of PVA composition. The FTIR and TGA results explicit possible chemical interactions and mass loss of blended scaffolds, respectively. The Tg values of DSC curved in range of HEC and PVA represented the miscibility of HEC/PVA blend polymers. Higher Young's modulus was obtained with the increasing of HEC value. Cell-scaffolds interaction demonstrated that human fibroblast (hFB) cells adhered to polymer matrices with better cell proliferation observed after 7 days of cultivation. These results suggested that biocompatible of HEC/PVA scaffolds fabricated by freeze-drying method might be suitable for skin tissue engineering applications.
The innovation of nanoparticles assumes a critical part of encouraging and giving open doors and conceivable outcomes to the headway of new era devices utilized as a part of biosensing. The focused on the quick and legitimate detecting of specific biomolecules using functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has turned into a noteworthy research enthusiasm for the most recent decade. Sensors created with gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes or in some cases by utilizing both are relied upon to change the very establishments of detecting and distinguishing various analytes. In this review, we will examine the current utilization of functionalized AuNPs and CNTs with other synthetic mixes for the creation of biosensor prompting to the location of particular analytes with low discovery cutoff and quick reaction.
This work reports on a novel glucose biosensor based on co-immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase with polymerized multiporous nanofiber (MPNFs) of SnO2 onto glassy carbon electrode with chitosan. Multiporous nanofibers of SnO2 were synthesized by electrospinning method from the tin precursor which possesses high surface area good electrical conductivity, and the nanofibers were polymerized with polyaniline (PANI). GOx and HRP were then co-immobilized with the nanofibers on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode by using chitosan. The polymerized nanofibers play a significant role in facilitating the direct electron transfer between the electroactive center of the immobilized enzyme and the electrode surface. The morphology of the nanofiber and polymerized nanofiber has been evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic Voltammetry and amperometry were employed to study and optimize the performance of the fabricated biosensor. The PANI/SnO2-NF/GOx-HRP/Ch/GC biosensor displayed a linear amperometric response towards the glucose concentration range from 5 to 100 μM with a detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3). Also, the anti-interference study and real sample analysis was investigated. Furthermore, the biosensor reported in this work exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility, and repeatability.
The field of nanotechnology mainly encompasses with biology, physics, chemistry and material sciences and it develops novel therapeutic nanosized materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The biological syntheses of nanoparticles are being carried out by different macro-microscopic organisms such as plant, bacteria, fungi, seaweeds and microalgae. The biosynthesized nanomaterials have been effectively controlling the various endemic diseases with less adverse effect. Plant contains abundant natural compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and other nutritional compounds. These natural products are derived from various parts of plant such as leaves, stems, roots shoots, flowers, barks, and seeds. Recently, many studies have proved that the plant extracts act as a potential precursor for the synthesis of nanomaterial in non-hazardous ways. Since the plant extract contains various secondary metabolites, it acts as reducing and stabilizing agents for the bioreduction reaction to synthesized novel metallic nanoparticles. The non-biological methods (chemical and physical) are used in the synthesis of nanoparticles, which has a serious hazardous and high toxicity for living organisms. In addition, the biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is inexpensive, single step and eco-friendly methods. The plants are used successfully in the synthesis of various greener nanoparticles such as cobalt, copper, silver, gold, palladium, platinum, zinc oxide and magnetite. Also, the plant mediated nanoparticles are potential remedy for various diseases such as malaria, cancer, HIV, hepatitis and other acute diseases.
Colon cancer is the most common type of cancer and major cause of death worldwide. The detection of colon cancer is difficult in early stages. However, the secretory proteins have been used as ideal biomarker for the detection of colon cancer progress in cancer patients. Serum/tissue protein expression could help general practitioners to identify colon cancer at earlier stages. By this way, we use the biomarkers to evaluate the anticancer drugs and their response to therapy in cancer models. Recently, the biomarker discovery is important in cancer biology and disease management. Also, many measurable specific molecular components have been studied in colon cancer therapeutics. The biomolecules are mainly DNA, RNA, metabolites, enzymes, mRNA, aptamers and proteins. Thus, in this review we demonstrate the important protein biomarker in colon cancer development and molecular identification of protein biomarker discovery.
This study highlights the use of red palm oil (RPO) as an alternative to dairy fat in a hard ice cream sample in the presence of different stabilizers; maltodextrin (MALTOD) and modified starch (MSTARCH). No stabilizer was added in the control sample (CO), while the different ratios of RPO to each stabilizer were 4:1, 3:2, and 2:3, coded as MALTOD1, MALTOD2, MALTOD3 for maltodextrin, and MSTARCH1, MSTARCH2, and MSTARCH3 for modified starch, respectively. These samples were compared regarding overrun, physical, and sensory properties. For MALTOD, sample MALTOD3 had the highest overrun (49.31±13.78%), while MALTOD2 had the highest viscosity (7.90±0.03 Pa.s) and hardness (1.09±0.07 kg), and MALTOD1 had the lowest melting properties (61.10±0.20%). For MSTARCH, sample MSTARCH1 had the highest hardness (3.39±0.07 kg), MSTARCH2 had the highest overrun (67.64±2.27%), and MSTARCH3 had the highest viscosity (8.19±0.24 Pa.s) and the lowest melting properties (39.83±0.20%). Samples MALTOD3 and MSTARCH1 were selected for comparison with commercial samples in terms of sensory acceptance and preference. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the sensory acceptability of MALTOD3 and MSTARCH1. However, both samples received a significantly lower (p < 0.05) ranking than the commercial samples in terms of appearance, texture, flavour, meltability, and overall acceptance. Future studies are recommended to improve the RPO-based ice cream sample, particularly in terms of its sensory properties.
A new series of liquid crystals decorated gold nanoparticles is synthesized whose molecular architecture has azobenzenes moieties as the peripheral units connected to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) via alkyl groups. The morphology and mesomorphic properties were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy. The thiolated ligand molecules (3a-c) showed enantiotropic smectic A phase, whereas gold nanoparticles (5a-c) exhibit nematic and smectic A phase with monotropic nature. HR-TEM measurement showed that the functionalized Au NPs are of the average size of 2nm and they are well dispersed without any aggregation. The trans-form of azo compounds showed a strong band in the UV region at ∼378nm for the π-π(∗) transition, and a weak band in the visible region at ∼472nm due to the n-π(∗) transition. These molecules exhibit attractive photoisomerization behaviour in which trans-cis transition takes about 15s whereas the cis-trans transition requires about 45min for compound 5c. The extent of reversible isomerization did not decay after 10 cycles, which proved that the photo-responsive properties of 5c were stable and repeatable. Therefore, these materials may be suitably exploited in the field of molecular switches and the optical storage devices.
Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.