• 1 Department of Tissue Engineering, Najafabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
  • 2 Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran. Electronic address:
  • 3 Department of Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2018 06;82:257-267.
PMID: 29627737 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.03.016


In this study, a bone cement consisting of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-poly caprolactone (PCL)-fluorapatite (FA)-graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized as bone filler for application in orthopedic surgeries. The FA and GO particulates were homogenously distributed in the PMMA-PCL polymer matrix and no defects and agglomeration were found in the PMMA-PCL/FA/GO bone cement. The in-vitro bioactivity result exhibited that addition of FA and GO to the polymer cement (PMMA-PCL) improved the apatite formation ability on the surface of polymer. The results also showed that addition of FA to the polymer bone cement escalated the compressive strength and elastic modulus while reducing elongation to 8 ± 2%. However, after addition of GO into the PMMA-PCL/FA bone cement, both compressive strength and elongation considerably increased to 101 ± 5 MPa and 35 ± 6%, respectively. Furthermore, tensile tests exhibited that inclusion of GO was favorable in improving the tensile modulus, UTS and elongation of the PMMA-PCL/FA bone cement. The cytotoxicity test pointed out that MG63 osteoblast cells viability increased to 279 ± 15% after addition of FA and GO to the PMMA-PCL polymer bone cement. The DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining demonstrated better spreading and attachment of MG63 cells on PMMA-PCL/FA/GO surface compared to the PMMA-PCL bone cements. These results confirm the suitable mechanical properties and favorable bioactivity along with high cells viability of PMMA-PCL/FA/GO bone cement, indicating its potentials for orthopedic applications.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.