• 1 Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah
  • 2 Hospital Shah Alam
  • 3 Universiti Sains Malaysia


Tuberculosis, an ancient disease, still thrives today as the leading infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis poses a great challenge due to the varied clinical presentations. We report 3 cases of primary ocular tuberculosis with varied presentations: conjunctival abscess, sclera-uveitis and occlusive vasculitis. There were no symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis in all cases. All patients presented with acute, unilateral painful red eye. The first case had good visual acuity (VA) OD (6/9) with a swollen upper lid, localized perilimbal-hemorrhagic conjunctival swelling superiorly, keratic precipitates and mild anterior chamber reaction. The posterior segment was normal. The second case had a VA of 6/60 OD. There was presence of conjunctival injection, keratic precipitates, posterior synechiae and anterior chamber reaction of 1+. A few days later, there was a progression to vitritis OU and hyperemic optic disc OD with choroidal folds, cystoid macula edema and a positive T sign on B scan ultrasonography. The third case had VA of 6/6 OU, AC reaction of 2+ OD. There was multiple peripheral choroiditis with peripheral vasculitis seen in the posterior segment OU. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) showed peripheral periphlebitis in all 4 quadrants OU. All 3 cases had positive Tuberculin Skin Test (Mantoux test) results which were more than 20mm. Anti-tuberculous treatment was promptly started and all patients showed significant clinical improvement. This case series highlights the diverse clinical presentations of ocular tuberculosis. A high clinical index of suspicion led to prompt initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy which resulted in good clinical outcomes for all cases.