BACKGROUND: The use of microorganisms in the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has recently emerged as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its low-cost and eco-friendly method. Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have developed mechanisms in tolerating Zn2+ through prevention against their toxicity and the production of ZnO NPs. The LAB's main resistance mechanism to Zn2+ is highly depended on the microorganisms' ability to interact with Zn2+ either through biosorption or bioaccumulation processes. Besides the inadequate studies conducted on biosynthesis with the use of zinc-tolerant probiotics, the understanding regarding the mechanism involved in this process is not clear. Therefore, this study determines the features of probiotic LAB strain TA4 related to its resistance to Zn2+. It also attempts to illustrate its potential in creating a sustainable microbial cell nanofactory of ZnO NPs.
RESULTS: A zinc-tolerant probiotic strain TA4, which was isolated from local fermented food, was selected based on the principal component analysis (PCA) with the highest score of probiotic attributes. Based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis, this strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum strain TA4, indicating its high resistance to Zn2+ at a maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) value of 500 mM and its capability of producing ZnO NPs. The UV-visible spectroscopy analysis proved the formations of ZnO NPs through the notable absorption peak at 380 nm. It was also found from the dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis that the Z-average particle size amounted to 124.2 nm with monodisperse ZnO NPs. Studies on scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the main mechanisms in ZnO NPs biosynthesis were facilitated by the Zn2+ biosorption ability through the functional groups present on the cell surface of strain TA4.
CONCLUSIONS: The strong ability of zinc-tolerant probiotic of L. plantarum strain TA4 to tolerate high Zn2+ concentration and to produce ZnO NPs highlights the unique properties of these bacteria as a natural microbial cell nanofactory for a more sustainable and eco-friendly practice of ZnO NPs biosynthesis.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.