RESULTS: A zinc-tolerant probiotic strain TA4, which was isolated from local fermented food, was selected based on the principal component analysis (PCA) with the highest score of probiotic attributes. Based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis, this strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum strain TA4, indicating its high resistance to Zn2+ at a maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) value of 500 mM and its capability of producing ZnO NPs. The UV-visible spectroscopy analysis proved the formations of ZnO NPs through the notable absorption peak at 380 nm. It was also found from the dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis that the Z-average particle size amounted to 124.2 nm with monodisperse ZnO NPs. Studies on scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the main mechanisms in ZnO NPs biosynthesis were facilitated by the Zn2+ biosorption ability through the functional groups present on the cell surface of strain TA4.
CONCLUSIONS: The strong ability of zinc-tolerant probiotic of L. plantarum strain TA4 to tolerate high Zn2+ concentration and to produce ZnO NPs highlights the unique properties of these bacteria as a natural microbial cell nanofactory for a more sustainable and eco-friendly practice of ZnO NPs biosynthesis.
DESIGN, METHODS AND RESULTS: A case series of seven patients from Malaysian private and public hospital settings who had an adverse reaction with methadone is discussed.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Despite methadone being an effective therapy for opioid dependence, there is a need for other alternative effective therapies, such as naltrexone, buprenorphine and the co-formulation of buprenorphine-naloxone, to be made available to physicians in both public and private sectors. There is need for individual treatment consideration to avoid adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, overdosing and in the presence of co-morbidities. An emphasis on safe storage of takeaway methadone is also needed. [George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, Shah ZUBS. Methadone complications amongst opioid-dependent patients in Malaysia: A case series. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:147-151].
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a cross-sectional study among 375 Malaysian medical doctors who met the inclusion criteria. A predetermined self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information regarding the sociodemographic, health status, workplace information, work commuting information, driving behaviour, history of RCI, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health status and work engagement. The questionnaires consist of the following instruments: (1) sociodemographic, health status, workplace information, work commuting information, driving behaviour and history of RCI; (2) Checklist of Individual Strength Questionnaire; (3) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; (4) 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale; and (5) Utrecht's Work Engagement Scale. The data will be analysed using SPSS program V.24. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to determine the prevalence and predictors of RCI.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has received ethics approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia (NMRR-18-3983-40609) and the Ethics Committee for Research Involving Human Subject, University Putra Malaysia (JKEUPM). Online written informed consent will be obtained from each study participant by the researchers. Results of the study will be disseminated through relevant journals and conferences.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04243291.
RESULTS: Targeted and non-targeted metabolomics for both polar and semi-polar metabolites of Phialemonium curvatum AWO2 (DSM 23903) cultivated in MSM with palm oil (MSM-P) or glucose (MSM-G) as carbon sources were obtained. Targeted metabolomics on central carbon metabolism of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glyoxylate cycle were analysed using LC-MS/MS-TripleQ and GC-MS, while untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using LC-MS/MS-QTOF followed by multivariate analysis. Targeted metabolomics analysis showed that glyoxylate pathway and TCA cycle were recruited at central carbon metabolism for triglyceride and glucose catabolism, respectively. Significant differences in organic acids concentration of about 4- to 8-fold were observed for citric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and oxaloacetic acid. Correlation of organic acids concentration and key enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism was further determined by enzymatic assays. On the other hand, the untargeted profiling revealed seven metabolites undergoing significant changes between MSM-P and MSM-G cultures.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study has provided insights on the understanding on the effect of triglycerides and sugar as carbon source in fungi global metabolic pathway, which might become important for future optimization of carbon flux engineering in fungi to improve organic acids production when vegetable oil is applied as the sole carbon source.