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  1. Lim SL, Ali A, Mohd Yusof H
    Malays J Nutr, 2017;23(2):279-290.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide. In Asia, few studies have measured knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of osteoporosis. This study aimed to determine the KAP of osteoporosis, including the main factors influencing attitude towards osteoporosis, and the relationship between osteoporosis knowledge, attitude, and practices among adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study via a self-administrated KAP questionnaire was carried out among 232 respondents aged 21 to 50 years in Kuala Lumpur. Random sampling was applied to select five districts in Kuala Lumpur, while convenient sampling was used for recruitment of apparently healthy subjects from community and institutional settings. The data were analysed using Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, Spearman Correlation and multiple logistic regression tests.
    Results: The findings indicate a moderate level of knowledge and attitude towards osteoporosis prevention with median scores of 51.6% and 68.6%, respectively. Osteoporosis knowledge varied significantly with gender, educational level and household income (p<0.05). Furthermore, attitude was significantly different in relation to educational level and household income. Based on the multiple logistic regression test, relatives and friends appeared to be the most significant factor influencing attitude (R=0.319, p<0.0001). Poor dietary and lifestyles practices were indicated, and a significant relationship was found between practice of weight-bearing activities and educational level (p<0.05). A significant correlation was found (ρ=0.348, p<0.0001) between knowledge and attitude, while no relationship was noted between knowledge and practice of weight-bearing activities or attitude and practice of weight-bearing activities.
    Conclusion: Knowledge played a significant role in affecting attitudes towards osteoporosis. However, understanding of osteoporosis is still at a moderate level. Friends and family were the most influential factor.
    Key words: Adults, attitude, knowledge, osteoporosis, practices
  2. Mohd Yusof H, Mohamad R, Zaidan UH, Abdul Rahman NA
    PMID: 31321032 DOI: 10.1186/s40104-019-0368-z
    In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have gained tremendous attention attributed to their unique properties. Notably, evidence has shown that zinc is an important nutrient in living organisms. As such, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes including bacteria, fungi and yeast are exploited for the synthesis of ZnO NPs by using microbial cells or enzyme, protein and other biomolecules compounds in either an intracellular or extracellular route. ZnO NPs exhibit antimicrobial properties, however, the properties of nanoparticles (NPs) are depended upon on their size and shape, which make them specific for various applications. Nevertheless, the desired size and shape of NPs can be obtained through the optimization process of microbes mediated synthesis by manipulating their reaction conditions. It should be noted that ZnO NPs are synthesized by various chemical and physical methods. Nonetheless, these methods are expensive and not environmentally friendly. On that account, the microbes mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs have rapidly evolved recently where the microbes are cleaner, eco-friendly, non-toxic and biocompatible as the alternatives to chemical and physical practices. Moreover, zinc in the form of NPs is more effective than their bulk counterparts and thus, they have been explored for many potential applications including in animals industry. Notably, with the advent of multi-drug resistant strains, ZnO NPs have emerged as the potential antimicrobial agents. This is mainly due to their superior properties in combating a broad spectrum of pathogens. Moreover, zinc is known as an essential trace element for most of the biological function in the animal's body. As such, the applications of ZnO NPs have been reported to significantly enhance the health and production of the farm animals. Thus, this paper reviews the biological synthesis of ZnO NPs by the microbes, the mechanisms of the biological synthesis, parameters for the optimization process and their potential application as an antimicrobial agent and feed supplement in the animal industry as well as their toxicological hazards on animals.
  3. Mohd Yusof H, Mohamad R, Zaidan UH, Rahman NA
    Microb Cell Fact, 2020 Jan 15;19(1):10.
    PMID: 31941498 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-020-1279-6
    BACKGROUND: The use of microorganisms in the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has recently emerged as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its low-cost and eco-friendly method. Several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have developed mechanisms in tolerating Zn2+ through prevention against their toxicity and the production of ZnO NPs. The LAB's main resistance mechanism to Zn2+ is highly depended on the microorganisms' ability to interact with Zn2+ either through biosorption or bioaccumulation processes. Besides the inadequate studies conducted on biosynthesis with the use of zinc-tolerant probiotics, the understanding regarding the mechanism involved in this process is not clear. Therefore, this study determines the features of probiotic LAB strain TA4 related to its resistance to Zn2+. It also attempts to illustrate its potential in creating a sustainable microbial cell nanofactory of ZnO NPs.

    RESULTS: A zinc-tolerant probiotic strain TA4, which was isolated from local fermented food, was selected based on the principal component analysis (PCA) with the highest score of probiotic attributes. Based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis, this strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum strain TA4, indicating its high resistance to Zn2+ at a maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) value of 500 mM and its capability of producing ZnO NPs. The UV-visible spectroscopy analysis proved the formations of ZnO NPs through the notable absorption peak at 380 nm. It was also found from the dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis that the Z-average particle size amounted to 124.2 nm with monodisperse ZnO NPs. Studies on scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the main mechanisms in ZnO NPs biosynthesis were facilitated by the Zn2+ biosorption ability through the functional groups present on the cell surface of strain TA4.

    CONCLUSIONS: The strong ability of zinc-tolerant probiotic of L. plantarum strain TA4 to tolerate high Zn2+ concentration and to produce ZnO NPs highlights the unique properties of these bacteria as a natural microbial cell nanofactory for a more sustainable and eco-friendly practice of ZnO NPs biosynthesis.

  4. Nasran HS, Mohd Yusof H, Halim M, Abdul Rahman N
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 04;25(11).
    PMID: 32512825 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112618
    Anthracnose is a fungal disease causing major losses in crop production. Chemical fungicides widely used in crop plantations to combat fungal infections can be a threat to the environment and humans in the long term. Recently, biofungicides have gained much interest as an alternative to chemical fungicides due to their environmentally friendly nature. Biofungicide products in powder form can be formulated using the freeze-drying technique to provide convenient storage. Protective agent formulation is needed in maintaining the optimal viable cells of biofungicide products. In this study, 8.10 log colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL was the highest cell viability of Paenibacillus polymyxa Kp10 at 22 h during incubation. The effects of several selected protective agents on the viability of P. polymyxa Kp10 after freeze-drying were studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing formulation for the protective agents. The combination of lactose (10% w/v), skim milk (20% w/v), and sucrose (27.5% w/v) was found to be suitable for preserving P. polymyxa Kp10 during freeze-drying. Further, P. polymyxa Kp10 demonstrated the ability to inhibit fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum truncatum and C. gloeosporioides, at 60.18% and 66.52% of inhibition of radial growth, respectively.
  5. Jeffery Daim LD, Ooi TE, Ithnin N, Mohd Yusof H, Kulaveerasingam H, Abdul Majid N, et al.
    Electrophoresis, 2015 Aug;36(15):1699-710.
    PMID: 25930948 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201400608
    The basidiomycete fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense is the causative agent for the incurable basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This disease causes significant annual crop losses in the oil palm industry. Currently, there is no effective method for disease control and elimination, nor is any molecular marker for early detection of the disease available. An understanding of how BSR affects protein expression in plants may help identify and/or assist in the development of an early detection protocol. Although the mode of infection of BSR disease is primarily via the root system, defense-related genes have been shown to be expressed in both the root and leafs. Thus, to provide an insight into the changes in the global protein expression profile in infected plants, comparative 2DE was performed on leaf tissues sampled from palms with and without artificial inoculation of the Ganoderma fungus. Comparative 2DE revealed that 54 protein spots changed in abundance. A total of 51 protein spots were successfully identified by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The majority of these proteins were those involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism as well as immunity and defense.
  6. George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, et al.
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2018 Jan;37(1):147-151.
    PMID: 27859761 DOI: 10.1111/dar.12456
    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid dependence remains the main type of illicit substance used in Malaysia, which has an estimated 187 771 opiate users. There are currently 333 active methadone maintenance treatment centres nationwide. Although methadone has proven to be an effective maintenance therapy, it has clinical concerns which can have an impact on its effectiveness and safety.

    DESIGN, METHODS AND RESULTS: A case series of seven patients from Malaysian private and public hospital settings who had an adverse reaction with methadone is discussed.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Despite methadone being an effective therapy for opioid dependence, there is a need for other alternative effective therapies, such as naltrexone, buprenorphine and the co-formulation of buprenorphine-naloxone, to be made available to physicians in both public and private sectors. There is need for individual treatment consideration to avoid adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, overdosing and in the presence of co-morbidities. An emphasis on safe storage of takeaway methadone is also needed. [George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, Shah ZUBS. Methadone complications amongst opioid-dependent patients in Malaysia: A case series. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:147-151].

  7. Kah Hui C, Majid NI, Mohd Yusof H, Mohd Zainol K, Mohamad H, Mohd Zin Z
    Heliyon, 2020 Jun;6(6):e04337.
    PMID: 32637711 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04337
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are silent killers and hyperlipidemia is a high-risk factor. Morinda citrolia leaf (MCL), which is commonly consumed by many cultural groups and has high level of catechins, might exert antihyperlipidemic properties. In this study, the catechins profile of MCL water extract was determined via HPLC and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-traveling wave ion mobility-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TWIMS-QTOF). The major catechin in MCL and the most widely studied catechin with hypolipidemic activity, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was studied in a cytotoxicity test on HepG2 cells prior the in vitro anti-hyperlipidemic assay. The total catechins of MCL reached 141.88 ± 5.04 mg/g, with catechin gallate (CG) (75.27 ± 8.49 mg/g) as the major catechin. Catechin derivatives that were identified include epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) with m/z 459.0912 [M + H]+, epigallocatechin (EGC) with m/z 307.0818 [M + H]+, CG with m/z 443.0976 [M + H]+, epigallocatechin(4β→8)-gallocatechin with m/z 649.0951 [M + K]+, and gallocatechin(4α→8)-epicatechin with m/z 633.1 [M + K]+. Cell inhibitions of MCL, CG and EGCG were more than IC50 of 100 μg/ml. MCL increased LDL-c uptake up to 1.11 ± 0.03-fold, but this was insignificant relative to control. CG and EGCG significantly increased LDL-c uptake up to 1.37 ± 0.19-fold and 1.59 ± 0.19-fold, respectively. Thus, MCL with CG has shown potential for modulating hyperlipidemia.
  8. Mohd Yusof H, Abdul Rahman N, Mohamad R, Zaidan UH, Samsudin AA
    Sci Rep, 2020 11 17;10(1):19996.
    PMID: 33204003 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76402-w
    This study aims to utilize the cell-biomass (CB) and supernatant (CFS) of zinc-tolerant Lactobacillus plantarum TA4 as a prospective nanofactory to synthesize ZnO NPs. The surface plasmon resonance for the biosynthesized ZnO NPs-CFS and ZnO NPs-CB was 349 nm and 351 nm, respectively, thereby confirming the formation of ZnO NPs. The FTIR analysis revealed the presence of proteins, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups on the surfaces of both the biosynthesized ZnO NPs that act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The DLS analysis revealed that the poly-dispersity indexes was less than 0.4 for both ZnO NPs. In addition, the HR-TEM micrographs of the biosynthesized ZnO NPs revealed a flower-like pattern for ZnO NPs-CFS and an irregular shape for ZnO NPs-CB with particles size of 291.1 and 191.8 nm, respectively. In this study, the biosynthesized ZnO NPs exhibited antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner and showed biocompatibility with the Vero cell line at specific concentrations. Overall, CFS and CB of L. plantarum TA4 can potentially be used as a nanofactory for the biological synthesis of ZnO NPs.
  9. Mohd Yusof H, Abdul Rahman N, Mohamad R, Hasanah Zaidan U, Samsudin AA
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jul 14;11(7).
    PMID: 34359225 DOI: 10.3390/ani11072093
    Since the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the poultry industry is currently a serious threat, there is an urgent need to develop a more efficient and alternative antibacterial substance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have exhibited antibacterial efficacy against a wide range of microorganisms. Although the in vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs has been studied, little is known about the antibacterial mechanisms of ZnO NPs against poultry-associated foodborne pathogens. In the present study, ZnO NPs were successfully synthesized using Lactobacillus plantarum TA4, characterized, and their antibacterial potential against common avian pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) was investigated. Confirmation of ZnO NPs by UV-Visual spectroscopy showed an absorption band center at 360 nm. Morphologically, the synthesized ZnO NPs were oval with an average particle size of 29.7 nm. Based on the dissolution study of Zn2+, ZnO NPs released more ions than their bulk counterparts. Results from the agar well diffusion assay indicated that ZnO NPs effectively inhibited the growth of the three poultry-associated foodborne pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed using various concentrations of ZnO NPs, which resulted in excellent antibacterial activity as compared to their bulkier counterparts. S. aureus was more susceptible to ZnO NPs compared to the other tested bacteria. Furthermore, the ZnO NPs demonstrated substantial biofilm inhibition and eradication. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular material leakage was quantified to determine the underlying antibacterial mechanisms, whereas a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the morphological changes of tested bacteria treated with ZnO NPs. The findings suggested that ROS-induced oxidative stress caused membrane damage and bacterial cell death. Overall, the results demonstrated that ZnO NPs could be developed as an alternative antibiotic in poultry production and revealed new possibilities in combating pathogenic microorganisms.
  10. Ali NM, Mohd Yusof H, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Beh BK, Long K, et al.
    PMID: 25045389 DOI: 10.1155/2014/350507
    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.
  11. Yeap SK, Beh BK, Ali NM, Mohd Yusof H, Ho WY, Koh SP, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:694842.
    PMID: 24877129 DOI: 10.1155/2014/694842
    Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose. Chronic cold restraint stress was observed to increase the adrenal gland weight, brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while reducing brain antioxidant enzyme level. However, these parameters were found reverted in mice treated with diazepam, high concentration of fermented mung bean and high concentration of germinated mung bean. Moreover, enhanced level of antioxidant on the chronic stress mice was observed in fermented and germinated mung bean treated groups. In comparison between germinated and fermented mung bean, fermented mung bean always showed better antistress and antioxidant effects throughout this study.
  12. Mohd Yusof H, Ali NM, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Beh BK, Koh SP, et al.
    PMID: 24058369 DOI: 10.1155/2013/274274
    Recently, soybean tempeh has received great attention due to many advantages such as higher nutritional value, lower production cost, and shorter fermentation time. In this study, the in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of nutrient enriched soybean tempeh (NESTE) were determined. NESTE fermentation process which involved anaerobic incubation was previously proclaimed to increase the content of amino acids and antioxidant properties remarkably. The evaluation of histological sections, serum biochemical markers (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)), liver immune response level (nitric oxide (NO)) and liver antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase (SOD), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) was conducted in order to compare the effects of nonfermented soybean extract (SBE) and fermented soybean extract (NESTE) on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. Results demonstrated that 1000 mg/kg of NESTE can significantly reduce the levels of AST, ALT, cholesterol, TG, MDA, and NO. On the other hand, it also raised the level of SOD and FRAP. Furthermore, the histological examination on 1000 mg/kg NESTE treatment group showed that this extract was capable of recovering the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. Thus, it can be concluded that NESTE produced through fermentation process was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo.
  13. Yeap SK, Mohd Yusof H, Mohamad NE, Beh BK, Ho WY, Ali NM, et al.
    PMID: 23710232 DOI: 10.1155/2013/708464
    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma) levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.
  14. Yeap SK, Mohd Ali N, Mohd Yusof H, Alitheen NB, Beh BK, Ho WY, et al.
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2012;2012:285430.
    PMID: 23091343 DOI: 10.1155/2012/285430
    Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts.
  15. Mohd Ali N, Mohd Yusof H, Long K, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Beh BK, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:693613.
    PMID: 23484140 DOI: 10.1155/2013/693613
    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean.
  16. Ruzlan N, Low YSJ, Win W, Azizah Musa N, Ong AL, Chew FT, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 08 29;7(1):9626.
    PMID: 28852058 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-10195-3
    The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzed glycolysis branch that forms dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate was identified as a key driver of increased oil synthesis in oil palm and was validated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Reduction in triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity in a yeast knockdown mutant resulted in 19% increase in lipid content, while yeast strains overexpressing oil palm fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (EgFBA) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EgG3PDH) showed increased lipid content by 16% and 21%, respectively. Genetic association analysis on oil palm SNPs of EgTPI SD_SNP_000035801 and EgGAPDH SD_SNP_000041011 showed that palms harboring homozygous GG in EgTPI and heterozygous AG in EgGAPDH exhibited higher mesocarp oil content based on dry weight. In addition, AG genotype of the SNP of EgG3PDH SD_SNP_000008411 was associated with higher mean mesocarp oil content, whereas GG genotype of the EgFBA SNP SD_SNP_000007765 was favourable. Additive effects were observed with a combination of favourable alleles in TPI and FBA in Nigerian x AVROS population (family F7) with highest allele frequency GG.GG being associated with a mean increase of 3.77% (p value = 2.3E-16) oil content over the Family 1. An analogous effect was observed in yeast, where overexpressed EgFBA in TPI - resulted in a 30% oil increment. These results provide insights into flux balances in glycolysis leading to higher yield in mesocarp oil-producing fruit.
  17. Rashid AA, Devaraj NK, Mohd Yusof H, Mustapha F, Wong SV, Ismail AF, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2020 07 02;10(7):e037653.
    PMID: 32616493 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037653
    INTRODUCTION: Medical doctors are often subjected to long working hours with minimal rest in between the shifts. This has led to many fatal and non-fatal road crash involvement (RCI). This study aims to determine the prevalence and predictors of RCI among medical doctors in Malaysia.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a cross-sectional study among 375 Malaysian medical doctors who met the inclusion criteria. A predetermined self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information regarding the sociodemographic, health status, workplace information, work commuting information, driving behaviour, history of RCI, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health status and work engagement. The questionnaires consist of the following instruments: (1) sociodemographic, health status, workplace information, work commuting information, driving behaviour and history of RCI; (2) Checklist of Individual Strength Questionnaire; (3) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; (4) 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale; and (5) Utrecht's Work Engagement Scale. The data will be analysed using SPSS program V.24. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to determine the prevalence and predictors of RCI.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has received ethics approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia (NMRR-18-3983-40609) and the Ethics Committee for Research Involving Human Subject, University Putra Malaysia (JKEUPM). Online written informed consent will be obtained from each study participant by the researchers. Results of the study will be disseminated through relevant journals and conferences.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04243291.

  18. Yeap SK, Beh BK, Kong J, Ho WY, Mohd Yusof H, Mohamad NE, et al.
    PMID: 25031606 DOI: 10.1155/2014/707829
    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.
  19. Yeap SK, Beh BK, Ho WY, Mohd Yusof H, Mohamad NE, Ali NM, et al.
    PMID: 26074993 DOI: 10.1155/2015/508029
    Legumes have previously been reported with hypolipidemic effect caused by the presence of flavonoid. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of fermented mung bean on hypercholesterolemic mice. Blood from all mice was collected and subjected to serum lipid and liver profiles biochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR for atherosclerosis related gene expressions. Besides, livers were collected for antioxidant assays and histopathology evaluation. Fermented mung bean was found to reduce the level of serum lipid and liver enzyme profiles of hypercholesterolemic mice. Furthermore, liver antioxidant and nitric oxide levels were also significantly restored by fermented mung bean in a dosage dependent manner. The gene expression study indicated that Apoe and Bcl2a1a were upregulated while Npy and Vwf expressions were downregulated after the treatment. The effects of fermented mung bean were greater than nonfermented mung bean. These results indicated that fermented mung bean possessed antioxidants that lead to its hypolipidemic effect on hypercholesterolemic mice.
  20. Zamani AI, Barig S, Ibrahim S, Mohd Yusof H, Ibrahim J, Low JYS, et al.
    Microb Cell Fact, 2020 Sep 09;19(1):179.
    PMID: 32907579 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-020-01434-w
    BACKGROUND: Sugars and triglycerides are common carbon sources for microorganisms. Nonetheless, a systematic comparative interpretation of metabolic changes upon vegetable oil or glucose as sole carbon source is still lacking. Selected fungi that can grow in acidic mineral salt media (MSM) with vegetable oil had been identified recently. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the overall metabolite changes of an omnipotent fungus and to reveal changes at central carbon metabolism corresponding to both carbon sources.

    RESULTS: Targeted and non-targeted metabolomics for both polar and semi-polar metabolites of Phialemonium curvatum AWO2 (DSM 23903) cultivated in MSM with palm oil (MSM-P) or glucose (MSM-G) as carbon sources were obtained. Targeted metabolomics on central carbon metabolism of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glyoxylate cycle were analysed using LC-MS/MS-TripleQ and GC-MS, while untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using LC-MS/MS-QTOF followed by multivariate analysis. Targeted metabolomics analysis showed that glyoxylate pathway and TCA cycle were recruited at central carbon metabolism for triglyceride and glucose catabolism, respectively. Significant differences in organic acids concentration of about 4- to 8-fold were observed for citric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and oxaloacetic acid. Correlation of organic acids concentration and key enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism was further determined by enzymatic assays. On the other hand, the untargeted profiling revealed seven metabolites undergoing significant changes between MSM-P and MSM-G cultures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study has provided insights on the understanding on the effect of triglycerides and sugar as carbon source in fungi global metabolic pathway, which might become important for future optimization of carbon flux engineering in fungi to improve organic acids production when vegetable oil is applied as the sole carbon source.

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