• 1 Center for Applied Electromagnetic, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat 86400, Malaysia
  • 2 Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication of Rennes, University of Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes, France
  • 3 School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Materials (Basel), 2020 Jan 26;13(3).
PMID: 31991912 DOI: 10.3390/ma13030582


In this research, a reconfigurable metamaterial (MM) structure was designed using a millimeter-wave (MMW) band with two configurations that exhibit different refractive indices. These two MM configurations are used to guide the antenna's main beam in the desired direction in the 5th generation (5G) band of 28 GHz. The different refractive indices of the two MM configurations created phase change for the electromagnetic (EM) wave of the antenna, which deflected the main beam. A contiguous squares resonator (CSR) is proposed as an MM structure to operate at MMW band. The CSR is reconfigured using three switches to achieve two MM configurations with different refractive indices. The simulation results of the proposed antenna loaded by MM unit cells demonstrate that the radiation beam is deflected by angles of +30° and -27° in the E-plane, depending on the arrangement of the two MM configurations on the antenna substrate. Furthermore, these deflections are accompanied by gain enhancements of 1.9 dB (26.7%) and 1.5 dB (22.4%) for the positive and negative deflections, respectively. The reflection coefficients of the MM antenna are kept below -10 dB for both deflection angles at 28 GHz. The MM antennas are manufactured and measured to validate the simulated results.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.