• 1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Rhinology and Allergy, University Hospital Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  • 2 Center for Rhinology and Allergology, Wiesbaden, Germany
  • 3 Department of Clinical Immunology, Wrocław Medical University, and ALL-MED Medical Research Institute, Wrocław, Poland
  • 4 Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
  • 5 Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Comprehensive Allergy Center Charité, Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, a Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany
  • 6 Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 7 Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
  • 8 Department of Respiratory Medicine & Allergology, Institute for Clinical Science, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • 9 Translational Medicine Program, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
  • 10 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • 11 Department of Information-Technology (IT), University Hospital Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  • 12 Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
  • 13 Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
  • 14 Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  • 15 Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Immunobiology, University Clinic Essen, Essen, Germany
  • 16 Allergy Unit, Malaga Regional University Hospital-UMA-ARADyAL, Málaga, Spain
  • 17 Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Augsburg, Germany
  • 18 Department of Otolaryngology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • 19 Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China
  • 20 Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli - IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy
  • 21 Department of Allergology, Occupational Dermatology and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany
  • 22 Children's Allergy Service, Evelina Children's Hospital, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  • 23 School of Medicine, University CEU San Pablo, Madrid, Spain
  • 24 Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
  • 25 Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Immunology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
  • 26 Department of Internal Medicine, Allergology, Clinical Immunology Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
  • 27 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Immunology and Allergic Diseases, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 28 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium
  • 29 Departments of Immunology and Dermatology/Allergology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 30 Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Helsinki University Hospital Inflammation Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 31 Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense Research Centre for Anaphylaxis (ORCA), Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
  • 32 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chemistry School, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
  • 33 Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology Department, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
  • 34 Centre for Inflammation Research and Child Life and Heath, the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  • 35 National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI), Imperial College London, London, UK
  • 36 Department of Occupational Diseases and Environmental Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland
  • 37 Department of Allergy and Immunology, Hospital Quironsalud Bizkaia, Erandio, Spain
  • 38 ENT Department, Upper Airways Research Laboratory, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
  • 39 MACVIA-France, Montpellier, France
  • 40 Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Woolcock Emphysema Centre, University of Sydney, Glebe, NSW, Australia
  • 41 Department of Medical Sciences, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, University of Torino & Mauriziano Hospital, Torino, Italy
  • 42 Personalized Medicine Asthma & Allergy Clinic Humanitas University & Research Hospital-IRCCS, Milano, Italy
  • 43 Department of Internal Medicine, Allergy Section, Hospital Vall d'Hebron & ARADyAL Research Network, Barcelona, Spain
  • 44 Serviço de Imunoalergologia, Hospital de Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 45 ProAR - Nucleo de Excelencia em Asma, Federal University of Bahia, Bahia, Brasil
  • 46 Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, CINTESIS, Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, Porto, Portugal
  • 47 Center of Allergy and Immunology, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • 48 Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 49 Servicio de Alergia e Immunologia, Clinica Santa Isabel, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 50 Division of Internal Medicine, Asthma and Allergy, Barlicki University Hospital, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
  • 51 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • 52 Center of Excellence in Asthma and Allergy, Médica Sur Clinical Foundation and Hospital, México City, Mexico
  • 53 Allergy & Immunology Centre, Pantai Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 54 Allergy Center, CUF Descobertas Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 55 ENT Department, Rhinology Unit & Smell Clinic, Hospital Clinic - Clinical & Experimental Respiratory Immunoallergy, IDIBAPS, CIBERES, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 56 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
  • 57 Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA), Fukujuji Hospital, and National Hospital Organization (NHO), Tokyo National Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
  • 58 Chiba University and Chiba Rosai Hospital, Chiba, Japan
  • 59 Division of Infection, Immunity & Respiratory Medicine, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  • 60 Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Santa Maria della Speranza Hospital, Salerno, Italy
  • 61 Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • 62 Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • 63 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
  • 64 Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine & Institute of Health Sciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • 65 Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Unit of Geriatric Immunoallergology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
  • 66 Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
  • 67 Transylvania University, Brasov, Romania
Allergy, 2021 03;76(3):648-676.
PMID: 32531110 DOI: 10.1111/all.14453


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a pandemic infectious disease transmitted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Allergists and other healthcare providers (HCPs) in the field of allergies and associated airway diseases are on the front line, taking care of patients potentially infected with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, strategies and practices to minimize risks of infection for both HCPs and treated patients have to be developed and followed by allergy clinics.

METHOD: The scientific information on COVID-19 was analysed by a literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, the National and International Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the Cochrane Library, and the internet.

RESULTS: Based on the diagnostic and treatment standards developed by EAACI, on international information regarding COVID-19, on guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations, and on previous experience, a panel of experts including clinicians, psychologists, IT experts, and basic scientists along with EAACI and the "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)" initiative have developed recommendations for the optimal management of allergy clinics during the current COVID-19 pandemic. These recommendations are grouped into nine sections on different relevant aspects for the care of patients with allergies.

CONCLUSIONS: This international Position Paper provides recommendations on operational plans and procedures to maintain high standards in the daily clinical care of allergic patients while ensuring the necessary safety measures in the current COVID-19 pandemic.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.