• 1 Maxillofacial Prosthetic Service, Prosthodontic Unit, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 2 Adelaide Dental School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
  • 3 Advisor for Biomaterial and 3D Visualization Lab, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 4 College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Sakaka 72345, Saudi Arabia
Polymers (Basel), 2020 Jul 12;12(7).
PMID: 32664615 DOI: 10.3390/polym12071536


Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating filler particles into maxillofacial silicone elastomer (MFPSE), a review of the types, concentrations and effectiveness of the particles themselves was lacking. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the effect of different types of filler particles on the mechanical properties of MFPSE. The properties in question were (1) tensile strength, (2) tear strength, (3) hardness, and (4) elongation at break. The findings of this study can assist operators, technicians and clinicians in making relevant decisions regarding which type of fillers to incorporate based on their needs. The systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 26 original articles from 1970 to 2019 were selected from the databases, based on predefined eligibility criteria by two reviewers. The meta-analyses of nine papers were carried out by extracting data from the systematic review based on scoring criteria and processed using Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. Overall, there were significant differences favoring filler particles when incorporated into MFPSE. Nano fillers (69.23% of all studies) demonstrated superior comparative outcomes for tensile strength (P < 0.0001), tear strength (P < 0.00001), hardness (P < 0.00001) and elongation at break (P < 0.00001) when compared to micro fillers (30.76% of all studies). Micro fillers demonstrated inconsistent outcomes in mechanical properties, and meta-analysis of elongation at break argued against (P < 0.01) their use. Current findings suggest that 1.5% ZrSiO4, 3% SiO2, 1.5% Y2O3, 2-6% TiO2, 2-2.5% ZnO, 2-2.5% CeO2, 0.5% TiSiO4 and 1% Ag-Zn Zeolite can be used to reinforce MFPSE, and help the materials better withstand mechanical degradation.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.