DESIGN: Retrospective study.
SETTING: School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
SUBJECTS: Eighty-four Bangladeshi children with nonsyndromic UCLP who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental models were taken at 5 to 12 years of age (man: 7.69), and dental arch relationships were assessed using modified Huddart/Bodenham index (mHB) by two raters. Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and interexaminer agreements, chi-square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR.
RESULTS: The total mHB score (mean [SD]) was -8.261 (7.115). Intra- and interagreement was very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analysis, significant association was found between positive history of class III (P = .025, P = .030, respectively) and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = .003) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR.
CONCLUSION: This multivariate study suggested complete type of UCLP and positive history of class III had a significantly unfavorable effect on the DAR.
METHOD: A total of one hundred and seven patients from age five to twelve years old with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were included in the study. These patients have received cheiloplasty and one stage palatoplasty surgery but yet to receive alveolar bone grafting procedure. Five assessors trained in the use of the EUROCRAN index underwent calibration exercise and ranked the dental arch relationships and palatal morphology of the patients' study models. For intra-rater agreement, the examiners scored the models twice, with two weeks interval in between sessions. Variable factors of the patients were collected and they included gender, site, type and, family history of unilateral cleft lip and palate; absence of lateral incisor on cleft side, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty technique used. Associations between various factors and dental arch relationships were assessed using logistic regression analysis.
RESULT: Dental arch relationship among unilateral cleft lip and palate in local population had relatively worse scoring than other parts of the world. Crude logistics regression analysis did not demonstrate any significant associations among the various socio-demographic factors, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty techniques used with the dental arch relationship outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has limitations that might have affected the results, example: having multiple operators performing the surgeries and the inability to access the influence of underlying genetic predisposed cranio-facial variability. These may have substantial influence on the treatment outcome. The factors that can affect unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome is multifactorial in nature and remained controversial in general.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and one sets of dental models of patients having CUCLP were assessed in this retrospective study. Five examiners that were blinded to case-specific information scored the dental models at two instances with an interval of two weeks to ensure memory bias elimination (5 × 101 × 2 = 1010 observations). Calibration courses were conducted prior to scoring and each examiner was provided with scoring sheets, pictures of GOSLON reference models and flowcharts explaining the scoring method.
RESULTS: According to GOSLON index, a mean (SD) GOSLON score of 3.04 (1.25) was determined. Based on treatment outcome groups, 62 patients had favorable (grade 1, 2, and 3) and 39 cases had unfavorable (grade 4 and 5) treatment outcome. Chi-square tests revealed a significant association of gender (P = 0.002), cheiloplasty (P = 0.001) and palatoplasty (P
METHODS: Dental models of 84 subjects were taken before orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting. The mean age was 7.69 (SD 2.46) years. The DAR and PM were assessed blindly by five raters using the EUROCRAN index (EI). Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner agreement, chi square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR and PM.
RESULTS: The mean EUROCRAN scores were 2.44 and 1.93 for DAR and PM, respectively. Intra- and inter-examiner agreement was moderate to very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analyses, significant associations were found between the modified Millard technique (P = 0.047, P = 0.034 respectively) of cheiloplasty and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = 0.017) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR. The PM showed a significant association with the type of cleft, type of cheiloplasty and type of palatoplasty.
CONCLUSION: This multivariate study determined that the complete type of UCLP and the modified Millard technique of cheiloplasty had significantly unfavorable effects on both the DAR and PM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective cross sectional study. Dental models were collected from archives of two cleft referral centers in Pakistan. Five blinded examiners scored 101 models twice at two week interval. The primary outcome was mean EUROCRAN scores based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology.
RESULTS: A mean(SD) score of 2.72 (0.76) and 2.20 (0.73) was determined based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology, respectively. According to the final logistic regression model, modified Millard technique (cheiloplasty) and Veau-Wardill-Kilners' method (palatoplasty) had higher odds of producing unfavorable treatment outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Present study determined a fair and a fair to poor treatment outcome based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology, respectively. Our study suggests a significant association between treatment outcome and primary surgical techniques for lip and palate. These findings could warrant a modification of management protocols to ensure improvement in future cleft outcomes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 370 orthodontic records including their pre-treatment orthopantomographs (OPG) and study models of orthodontic patients in permanent dentition who attended dental clinic were assessed for impaction, hypodontia, supernumerary, supraocclusion, infraocclusion, and any other anomalies excluding the third molars. The association of anomalies with gender status and racial status was analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. A P value of <0.05 is considered as significant. The confidence interval at 95% (CI) was set.
RESULTS: Among the 370 subjects, 105 (28.4%) presented with at least one anomaly. Eighty-five (23%) demonstrated a single anomaly and 20 (5.4%) with more than one anomaly. The most prevalent anomaly was impaction (14.32%), followed by hypodontia (7.03%). The less common anomalies were microdontia (1.08%), dilacerations (0.27%), and generalised enamel hypoplasia (0.27%). Maxillary right lateral incisors and canines were the most common affected teeth and these are located on the maxillary right quadrant. It was evident that dental anomalies were statistically dependant on race (P = 0.025), but independent of gender. The most common treatment planned for these patients was fixed appliance.
CONCLUSIONS: Impaction was predominant among 28.4% subjects observed with anomaly and most patients with anomaly are treated with fixed appliances (49%).
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These anomalies play a great role in occlusion and alignment in treatment planning and relapse for orthodontic treatment.