DESIGN: Retrospective study.
SETTING: School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
SUBJECTS: Eighty-four Bangladeshi children with nonsyndromic UCLP who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental models were taken at 5 to 12 years of age (man: 7.69), and dental arch relationships were assessed using modified Huddart/Bodenham index (mHB) by two raters. Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and interexaminer agreements, chi-square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR.
RESULTS: The total mHB score (mean [SD]) was -8.261 (7.115). Intra- and interagreement was very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analysis, significant association was found between positive history of class III (P = .025, P = .030, respectively) and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = .003) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR.
CONCLUSION: This multivariate study suggested complete type of UCLP and positive history of class III had a significantly unfavorable effect on the DAR.
METHOD: A total of one hundred and seven patients from age five to twelve years old with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were included in the study. These patients have received cheiloplasty and one stage palatoplasty surgery but yet to receive alveolar bone grafting procedure. Five assessors trained in the use of the EUROCRAN index underwent calibration exercise and ranked the dental arch relationships and palatal morphology of the patients' study models. For intra-rater agreement, the examiners scored the models twice, with two weeks interval in between sessions. Variable factors of the patients were collected and they included gender, site, type and, family history of unilateral cleft lip and palate; absence of lateral incisor on cleft side, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty technique used. Associations between various factors and dental arch relationships were assessed using logistic regression analysis.
RESULT: Dental arch relationship among unilateral cleft lip and palate in local population had relatively worse scoring than other parts of the world. Crude logistics regression analysis did not demonstrate any significant associations among the various socio-demographic factors, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty techniques used with the dental arch relationship outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has limitations that might have affected the results, example: having multiple operators performing the surgeries and the inability to access the influence of underlying genetic predisposed cranio-facial variability. These may have substantial influence on the treatment outcome. The factors that can affect unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome is multifactorial in nature and remained controversial in general.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and one sets of dental models of patients having CUCLP were assessed in this retrospective study. Five examiners that were blinded to case-specific information scored the dental models at two instances with an interval of two weeks to ensure memory bias elimination (5 × 101 × 2 = 1010 observations). Calibration courses were conducted prior to scoring and each examiner was provided with scoring sheets, pictures of GOSLON reference models and flowcharts explaining the scoring method.
RESULTS: According to GOSLON index, a mean (SD) GOSLON score of 3.04 (1.25) was determined. Based on treatment outcome groups, 62 patients had favorable (grade 1, 2, and 3) and 39 cases had unfavorable (grade 4 and 5) treatment outcome. Chi-square tests revealed a significant association of gender (P = 0.002), cheiloplasty (P = 0.001) and palatoplasty (P
MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective cross sectional study. Dental models were collected from archives of two cleft referral centers in Pakistan. Five blinded examiners scored 101 models twice at two week interval. The primary outcome was mean EUROCRAN scores based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology.
RESULTS: A mean(SD) score of 2.72 (0.76) and 2.20 (0.73) was determined based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology, respectively. According to the final logistic regression model, modified Millard technique (cheiloplasty) and Veau-Wardill-Kilners' method (palatoplasty) had higher odds of producing unfavorable treatment outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Present study determined a fair and a fair to poor treatment outcome based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology, respectively. Our study suggests a significant association between treatment outcome and primary surgical techniques for lip and palate. These findings could warrant a modification of management protocols to ensure improvement in future cleft outcomes.
DESIGN: Retrospective observational study.
SETTING: Two regional cleft-referral centers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In the current study, 101 pairs of dental models of non-syndromic CUCLP patients were retrieved from hospital archives. Each occlusal relationship from central incisor till the first permanent molars were scored except the lateral incisor. Sum of 10 occlusal relationships in each study sample gave a total occlusion score. The primary outcome was the mean total occlusion score.
RESULTS: According to MHB, a mean (standard deviation) total occlusion score of -8.92 (6.89) was determined. Based on treatment outcome, 66 cases were favorable (grades 1, 2, and 3) and 35 cases were unfavorable (grades 4 and 5). Chi-square tests indicated, difference of cheiloplasty ( P = .001) and palatoplasty ( P < .001) statistically significant. Five variables-gender, family history of cleft, cleft side, cheiloplasty, and palatoplasty-were analyzed with a logistic regression model.
CONCLUSIONS: Final model indicated that cases treated with modified Millard technique (cheiloplasty) and Veau-Wardill-Kilner method (palatoplasty) had higher odds of unfavorable treatment outcome.
METHODS: Dental models of 84 subjects were taken before orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting. The mean age was 7.69 (SD 2.46) years. The DAR and PM were assessed blindly by five raters using the EUROCRAN index (EI). Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner agreement, chi square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR and PM.
RESULTS: The mean EUROCRAN scores were 2.44 and 1.93 for DAR and PM, respectively. Intra- and inter-examiner agreement was moderate to very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analyses, significant associations were found between the modified Millard technique (P = 0.047, P = 0.034 respectively) of cheiloplasty and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = 0.017) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR. The PM showed a significant association with the type of cleft, type of cheiloplasty and type of palatoplasty.
CONCLUSION: This multivariate study determined that the complete type of UCLP and the modified Millard technique of cheiloplasty had significantly unfavorable effects on both the DAR and PM.
METHODS: Data consisted of pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 95 children, 49 patients with RTB and 46 patients with RPFM, divided into an early (8-9 year) and late (10-11 year) group. Treatment changes were assessed by the Ricketts analysis using CASSOS software, where 71 anatomic landmarks were identified in each cephalogram. Paired and independent t tests were performed for statistical comparison.
RESULTS: Paired t test revealed significant changes in facial axis, facial angle, MD plane to FH, lower facial height, mandibular arc, maxillary convexity, U1 to APog, L1 to APog, L1 to APog angle and upper lip to E-plane measurements in RPFM, whereas significant changes were found in facial taper, U1 to APog and lower lip to E-plane values with RTB in the early treatment group. Independent t test revealed significant changes in U1 to APog, L1 to APog and U6 to PtV values in the RTB group. Post-treatment comparison of RTB and RPFM showed significant differences in L1 to APog and L1 to APog angle values.
CONCLUSIONS: RPFM revealed more favourable craniofacial changes than RTB, particularly in the late mixed dentition stage.