Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

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  1. Alam MK, Iida J
    Acta Odontol. Scand., 2013 Nov;71(6):1520-31.
    PMID: 23530813 DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2013.775336
    This study aimed to measure and compare tooth size ratios in a Bangladeshi population across the following groups: those with normal occlusion, crowding or spacing; those with normal, increased or decreased overjet; those with normal, increased or decreased overbite; those with or without dental mid-line discrepancy; and those with or without lip competence. It also presents a graphical overview of the anterior and overall ratios from the study and using available global data.
  2. Haque S, Alam MK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Mar-Apr;22(2):55-60.
    PMID: 26023296 MyJurnal
    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common orofacial congenital malformation in live births. CLP can occur individually or in combination with other congenital deformities. Affected patients experience a number of dental, aesthetic, speech, hearing, and psychological complications and have a higher incidence of severe dental conditions. The purpose of this study is to characterise the different types of dental anomalies that are frequently associated with CLP patients based on a literature survey.
  3. Alam MK, Arshad AI
    Cleft Palate Craniofac. J., 2015 Sep;52(5):634.
    PMID: 25405544 DOI: 10.1597/14-258
  4. Shahid F, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    Korean J Orthod, 2016 May;46(3):171-9.
    PMID: 27226963 DOI: 10.4041/kjod.2016.46.3.171
    The primary aim of the study was to generate new prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths based on mandibular incisors and first permanent molar widths.
  5. Shahid F, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    Eur J Dent, 2816 Apr-Jun;10(2):176-82.
    PMID: 27095892 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.178299
    Comprehensive diagnosis and treatment planning are essential in a successful orthodontic practice. The purpose of this study is to determine and compare intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy (IMTSD) using traditional digital caliper (DC) measurement on plaster dental models and stereomicroscopic digital dental models (SM).
  6. Shahid F, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    Eur J Dent, 2015 Oct-Dec;9(4):490-9.
    PMID: 26929686 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.172620
    To investigate the maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups.
  7. Yew CC, Rahman SA, Alam MK
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:169.
    PMID: 26546159 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0495-4
    The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) ankylosis in child is rare and yet the causes still remain unclear. This condition that affects the feeding and possible airway obstruction do not only worry the parents, but also possesses as a great challenge to the surgeons. Furthermore, it interferes with the facial skeletal and dento-alveolar development in the on growing child.
  8. Elnafar AA, Alam MK, Hasan R
    J Orthod, 2014 Sep;41(3):201-7.
    PMID: 25143559 DOI: 10.1179/1465313314Y.0000000097
    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of four enamel preparation techniques on shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) and enamel surface roughness (Ra) were also investigated after cement removal.
  9. Purmal K, Alam MK, Sukumaran P
    Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2013 Jan;10(1):81-6.
    PMID: 23878568 DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.111805
    Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods.
  10. Alam MK, Iida J, Sato Y, Kajii TS
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2013 Dec;51(8):e205-10.
    PMID: 23099108 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2012.10.001
    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology.
  11. Haque S, Alam MK, Arshad AI
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Jan-Feb;22(1):4-11.
    PMID: 25892945 MyJurnal
    In the contemporary era, the demand for orthodontic treatment is ever rising. Orthodontic treatment duration can range from a year to a few years. Our aim is to assess the available techniques of categorising treatment effectiveness in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and to study their effect on improvement of treatment outcomes. The electronic databases including Medline-PUBMED, Science Direct, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched from 1987 to 2013, and 40 311 relevant articles were found. Of these, we identified 22 articles including original articles as well as literature reviews. The different parameters and indices that are applied to speed-up orthodontic treatment outcomes in patients with CLP were identified as the GOSLON Yardstick, 5-year-old index, EUROCRAN index, Huddart Bodenham system, modified Huddart Bodenham system, GOAL Yardstick and, Bauru-Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Yardstick. This overview can create better awareness regarding the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of the different indices. It can enable better assessment and provide the impetus needed for a sustained upgrade in the standards of care for CLP in daily orthodontics.
  12. Nishi SE, Basri R, Alam MK
    Eur J Dent, 2016 Jul-Sep;10(3):419-25.
    PMID: 27403065 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.184156
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the uses of electromyography (EMG) in dentistry in the last few years in related research. EMG is an advanced technique to record and evaluate muscle activity. In the previous days, EMG was only used for medical sciences, but now EMG playing a tremendous role in medical as well as dental sector.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several electronic databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies published until July 2015.
    RESULTS: EMG can be used in both diagnosis and treatment purpose to record neuromuscular activity. In dentistry, we can utilize EMG to evaluate muscular activity in function such as chewing and biting or parafunctional activities such as clenching and bruxism. In case of TMJ and myofascial pain disorders, EMG widely is used in the last few years.
    CONCLUSIONS: EMG is one of biometric tests that occur in the modern evidence-based dentistry practice.
    KEYWORDS: Dental disease; dentistry; muscle function; myofascial pain disorder syndrome; parafunctional habits; surface electromyography
  13. Haque S, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    Cleft Palate Craniofac. J., 2018 08;55(7):966-973.
    PMID: 27479096 DOI: 10.1597/15-293
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dental arch relationship (DAR) of nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to explore the various phenotype and postnatal treatment factors that are responsible for poor DAR.

    DESIGN: Retrospective study.

    SETTING: School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Eighty-four Bangladeshi children with nonsyndromic UCLP who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental models were taken at 5 to 12 years of age (man: 7.69), and dental arch relationships were assessed using modified Huddart/Bodenham index (mHB) by two raters. Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and interexaminer agreements, chi-square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR.

    RESULTS: The total mHB score (mean [SD]) was -8.261 (7.115). Intra- and interagreement was very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analysis, significant association was found between positive history of class III (P = .025, P = .030, respectively) and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = .003) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR.

    CONCLUSION: This multivariate study suggested complete type of UCLP and positive history of class III had a significantly unfavorable effect on the DAR.

  14. Arshad AI, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    Cleft Palate Craniofac. J., 2018 05;55(5):682-687.
    PMID: 29518343 DOI: 10.1177/1055665618758278
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the treatment outcome of complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) patients using modified Huddart/Bodenham scoring system (MHB). To determine whether there is an association of congenital and postnatal factors with the treatment outcome.

    DESIGN: Retrospective observational study.

    SETTING: Two regional cleft-referral centers.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In the current study, 101 pairs of dental models of non-syndromic CUCLP patients were retrieved from hospital archives. Each occlusal relationship from central incisor till the first permanent molars were scored except the lateral incisor. Sum of 10 occlusal relationships in each study sample gave a total occlusion score. The primary outcome was the mean total occlusion score.

    RESULTS: According to MHB, a mean (standard deviation) total occlusion score of -8.92 (6.89) was determined. Based on treatment outcome, 66 cases were favorable (grades 1, 2, and 3) and 35 cases were unfavorable (grades 4 and 5). Chi-square tests indicated, difference of cheiloplasty ( P = .001) and palatoplasty ( P < .001) statistically significant. Five variables-gender, family history of cleft, cleft side, cheiloplasty, and palatoplasty-were analyzed with a logistic regression model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Final model indicated that cases treated with modified Millard technique (cheiloplasty) and Veau-Wardill-Kilner method (palatoplasty) had higher odds of unfavorable treatment outcome.

  15. Sujon MK, Alam MK, Rahman SA
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0162070.
    PMID: 27580050 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162070
    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of third molar agenesis and other associated dental anomalies in Bangladeshi population and to investigate the relationship of other dental anomalies with the third molar presence/agenesis. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 5923 patients, who ranged in age from 10 to 50 years. All radiographs were analyzed by Planmeca Romexis® 3.0 software (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Pearson chi-square and one way ANOVA (Post Hoc) test were conducted. The prevalence of third molar agenesis was 38.4%. The frequency of third molar agenesis was significantly higher in females than males (p <0.025). Third molar agenesis was significantly more prevalent in maxilla as compared to mandible (p <0.007). The prevalence of other dental anomalies was 6.5%, among them hypodontia was 3.1%. Prevalence of third molar agenesis varies in different geographic region. Among the other dental anomalies hypodontia was more prevalent.
  16. Yew CC, Alam MK, Rahman SA
    PMID: 27619027 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.07.026
    OBJECTIVES: This study is to evaluate the dental arch relationship and palatal morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate patients by using EUROCRAN index, and to assess the factors that affect them using multivariate statistical analysis.

    METHOD: A total of one hundred and seven patients from age five to twelve years old with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were included in the study. These patients have received cheiloplasty and one stage palatoplasty surgery but yet to receive alveolar bone grafting procedure. Five assessors trained in the use of the EUROCRAN index underwent calibration exercise and ranked the dental arch relationships and palatal morphology of the patients' study models. For intra-rater agreement, the examiners scored the models twice, with two weeks interval in between sessions. Variable factors of the patients were collected and they included gender, site, type and, family history of unilateral cleft lip and palate; absence of lateral incisor on cleft side, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty technique used. Associations between various factors and dental arch relationships were assessed using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULT: Dental arch relationship among unilateral cleft lip and palate in local population had relatively worse scoring than other parts of the world. Crude logistics regression analysis did not demonstrate any significant associations among the various socio-demographic factors, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty techniques used with the dental arch relationship outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has limitations that might have affected the results, example: having multiple operators performing the surgeries and the inability to access the influence of underlying genetic predisposed cranio-facial variability. These may have substantial influence on the treatment outcome. The factors that can affect unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome is multifactorial in nature and remained controversial in general.

  17. Fareen N, Alam MK, Khamis MF, Mokhtar N
    Orthod Craniofac Res, 2017 Aug;20(3):134-139.
    PMID: 28440029 DOI: 10.1111/ocr.12179
    OBJECTIVE: Reverse Twin-Block (RTB) and Reverse Pull Face Mask (RPFM) appliances are used to correct Class III malocclusion in growing patients. Aim of this retrospective study was to compare and analyse craniofacial changes produced by RTB and RPFM in the early and late mixed dentition in Malay children with Class III malocclusion.

    METHODS: Data consisted of pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 95 children, 49 patients with RTB and 46 patients with RPFM, divided into an early (8-9 year) and late (10-11 year) group. Treatment changes were assessed by the Ricketts analysis using CASSOS software, where 71 anatomic landmarks were identified in each cephalogram. Paired and independent t tests were performed for statistical comparison.

    RESULTS: Paired t test revealed significant changes in facial axis, facial angle, MD plane to FH, lower facial height, mandibular arc, maxillary convexity, U1 to APog, L1 to APog, L1 to APog angle and upper lip to E-plane measurements in RPFM, whereas significant changes were found in facial taper, U1 to APog and lower lip to E-plane values with RTB in the early treatment group. Independent t test revealed significant changes in U1 to APog, L1 to APog and U6 to PtV values in the RTB group. Post-treatment comparison of RTB and RPFM showed significant differences in L1 to APog and L1 to APog angle values.

    CONCLUSIONS: RPFM revealed more favourable craniofacial changes than RTB, particularly in the late mixed dentition stage.

  18. Haque S, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    BMC Pediatr, 2017 May 06;17(1):119.
    PMID: 28477625 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-017-0870-4
    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one of the most common birth defects. Multiple factors are believed to be responsible for an unfavorable dental arch relationship in CLP. Facial growth (maxillary) retardation, which results in class III malocclusion, is the primary challenge that CLP patients face. Phenotype factors and postnatal treatment factors influence treatment outcomes in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) children, which has led to a great diversity in protocols and surgical techniques by various cleft groups worldwide. The aim of this study was to illustrate the dental arch relationship (DAR) and palatal morphology (PM) of UCLP in Bangladeshi children and to explore the various factors that are responsible for poor DAR and PM.

    METHODS: Dental models of 84 subjects were taken before orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting. The mean age was 7.69 (SD 2.46) years. The DAR and PM were assessed blindly by five raters using the EUROCRAN index (EI). Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner agreement, chi square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR and PM.

    RESULTS: The mean EUROCRAN scores were 2.44 and 1.93 for DAR and PM, respectively. Intra- and inter-examiner agreement was moderate to very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analyses, significant associations were found between the modified Millard technique (P = 0.047, P = 0.034 respectively) of cheiloplasty and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = 0.017) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR. The PM showed a significant association with the type of cleft, type of cheiloplasty and type of palatoplasty.

    CONCLUSION: This multivariate study determined that the complete type of UCLP and the modified Millard technique of cheiloplasty had significantly unfavorable effects on both the DAR and PM.

  19. Arshad AI, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    PMID: 28012538 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.11.006
    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to assess the treatment outcome of non-syndromic patients having complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) by using GOSLON index and to determine any association of pre and/or postnatal factors with the treatment outcome.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and one sets of dental models of patients having CUCLP were assessed in this retrospective study. Five examiners that were blinded to case-specific information scored the dental models at two instances with an interval of two weeks to ensure memory bias elimination (5 × 101 × 2 = 1010 observations). Calibration courses were conducted prior to scoring and each examiner was provided with scoring sheets, pictures of GOSLON reference models and flowcharts explaining the scoring method.

    RESULTS: According to GOSLON index, a mean (SD) GOSLON score of 3.04 (1.25) was determined. Based on treatment outcome groups, 62 patients had favorable (grade 1, 2, and 3) and 39 cases had unfavorable (grade 4 and 5) treatment outcome. Chi-square tests revealed a significant association of gender (P = 0.002), cheiloplasty (P = 0.001) and palatoplasty (P 

  20. Arshad AI, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    PMID: 28802394 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.06.025
    OBJECTIVES: Assessment of treatment outcome is the only non-invasive approach to identify the effects of cleft lip and palate repair and modify management accordingly. Here the aim is to assess the outcome of complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) patients using EUROCRAN index and to check whether there are any factors associated with the treatment outcome.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective cross sectional study. Dental models were collected from archives of two cleft referral centers in Pakistan. Five blinded examiners scored 101 models twice at two week interval. The primary outcome was mean EUROCRAN scores based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology.

    RESULTS: A mean(SD) score of 2.72 (0.76) and 2.20 (0.73) was determined based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology, respectively. According to the final logistic regression model, modified Millard technique (cheiloplasty) and Veau-Wardill-Kilners' method (palatoplasty) had higher odds of producing unfavorable treatment outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Present study determined a fair and a fair to poor treatment outcome based on dental arch relationships and palatal surface morphology, respectively. Our study suggests a significant association between treatment outcome and primary surgical techniques for lip and palate. These findings could warrant a modification of management protocols to ensure improvement in future cleft outcomes.

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