Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Awadh AI, Hassali MA, Al-Lela OQ, Bux SH, Elkalmi RM, Hadi H
    BMC Pediatr, 2014;14:254.
    PMID: 25284603 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-254
    Parents' knowledge about immunization is an important predictor factor for their children's immunization status. The aims of this study were to assess parents' knowledge and to evaluate the effect of a short educational intervention on improving parents' knowledge of childhood immunization.
  2. Ramdzan SN, Liew SM, Khoo EM
    BMC Pediatr, 2014;14:132.
    PMID: 24885332 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-132
    BACKGROUND:
    Unintentional injuries are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Prevention of unintentional injuries has been shown to be effective with education. Understanding the level of knowledge and practices of caregivers in infant safety would be useful to identify gaps for improvement.

    METHODS:
    A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban government health clinic in Malaysia among main caregivers of infants aged 11 to 15 months. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured self-designed questionnaire. Responses to the items were categorised by the percentage of correct answers: poor (<50%), moderate (50% - 70%) and good (>70%).

    RESULTS:
    A total of 403 caregivers participated in the study. Of the 21 items in the questionnaire on knowledge, 19 had good-to-moderate responses and two had poor responses. The two items on knowledge with poor responses were on the use of infant walkers (26.8%) and allowing infants on motorcycles as pillion riders (27.3%). Self-reported practice of infant safety was poor. None of the participants followed all 19 safety practices measured. Eight (42.1%) items on self-reported practices had poor responses. The worst three of these were on the use of baby cots (16.4%), avoiding the use of infant walkers (23.8%) and putting infants to sleep in the supine position (25.6%). Better knowledge was associated with self-reported safety practices in infants (p < 0.05). However, knowledge did not correspond to correct practice, particularly on the use of baby cots, infant walkers and sarong cradles.

    CONCLUSION:
    Main caregivers' knowledge on infant safety was good but self-reported practice was poor. Further research in the future is required to identify interventions that target these potentially harmful practices.
  3. Khor CS, Sam IC, Hooi PS, Quek KF, Chan YF
    BMC Pediatr, 2012;12:32.
    PMID: 22429933 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-32
    Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old) admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  4. Abd-Jamil J, Teoh BT, Hassan EH, Roslan N, Abubakar S
    BMC Pediatr, 2010;10:46.
    PMID: 20594359 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-46
    There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV) known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV) serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI) of young children in Malaysia.
  5. Zyoud SH, Abu Taha A, Araj KF, Abahri IA, Sawalha AF, Sweileh WM, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:176.
    PMID: 26561029 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0494-5
    BACKGROUND: In primary health care centres, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children are commonly encountered by physicians. Viruses cause most URTIs, but parents' attitudes often represent an important reason for antibiotic abuse, which leads to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The goal of this study was to examine parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about antibiotic use for children with URTIs in Palestine.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary health care centres in Nablus city from 1 June to 31 October 2012. A questionnaire was developed and administered to determine parents' KAP regarding antibiotic use for their children with URTIs.
    RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-five parents completed the questionnaire. A total of 79.7% of the parents were attentive to the truth that antibiotic misuse is responsible for bacterial resistance. Only 18.9% of parents thought that antibiotics did not have any harmful side effects. Fifty nine per cent of parents did not agree that URTIs are mostly viral in origin and are self-limited. Almost 73% of parents choose antibiotics as a treatment for URTIs, while earache (68%) and fever (64%) were the most common reasons for which parents expected antibiotics. However, more than 38% of the parents never asked the paediatrician to prescribe antibiotics, and only 6% congratulated their paediatricians for not prescribing antibiotics.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although there is a trusted relationship between parents and paediatricians, Palestinian parents have insufficient knowledge related to antibiotic use for URTIs in children, which results in inappropriate attitudes and practices. Educational interventions for both parents and physicians will reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and resistance.
  6. Yew CC, Rahman SA, Alam MK
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:169.
    PMID: 26546159 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0495-4
    The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) ankylosis in child is rare and yet the causes still remain unclear. This condition that affects the feeding and possible airway obstruction do not only worry the parents, but also possesses as a great challenge to the surgeons. Furthermore, it interferes with the facial skeletal and dento-alveolar development in the on growing child.
  7. Hossain M, Mani KK, Mohd Sidik S, Hayati KS, Rahman AK
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:114.
    PMID: 26357879 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0431-7
    Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh.
  8. Tay EL, Lee SWH, Jamaluddin SF, Tam CL, Wong CP
    BMC Pediatr, 2016 04 27;16:56.
    PMID: 27122016 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-016-0590-1
    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies describing the epidemiology of childhood brain injury, especially in developing countries. This study analyses data from the Malaysian National Trauma Database (NTrD) registry to estimate the incidence of childhood brain injury among various demographic groups within the state of Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur.

    METHODS: This study analysed all traumatic brain injury cases for children ages 0-19 included in the 2010 NTrD report.

    RESULTS: A total of 5,836 paediatric patients were admitted to emergency departments (ED) of reporting hospitals for trauma. Of these, 742 patients (12.7 %) suffered from brain injuries. Among those with brain injuries, the mortality rate was 11.9 and 71.2 % were aged between 15 and 19. Traffic accidents were the most common mode of injury (95.4 %). Out of the total for traffic accidents, 80.2 % of brain injuries were incurred in motorcycle accidents. Severity of injury was higher among males and patients who were transferred or referred to the reporting centres from other clinics. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) total score and type of admission were found to be statistically significant, χ (2) (5, N = 178) = 66.53, p 

  9. Shanmugam S, Nathan AM, Zaki R, Tan KE, Eg KP, Thavagnanam S, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2016 06 23;16:80.
    PMID: 27339265 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-016-0616-8
    BACKGROUND: Noisy breathing is a common presenting symptom in children. The purpose of this study is to (a) assess parental ability to label wheeze, (b) compare the ability of parents of children with and without asthma to label wheeze and (c) determine factors affecting parental ability to label wheeze correctly.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia involved parents of children with asthma. Parents of children without asthma were the control group. Eleven validated video clips showing wheeze, stridor, transmitted noises, snoring or normal breathing were shown to the parents. Parents were asked, in English or Malay, "What do you call the sound this child is making?" and "Where do you think the sound is coming from?"

    RESULTS: Two hundred parents participated in this study: 100 had children with asthma while 100 did not. Most (71.5 %) answered in Malay. Only 38.5 % of parents correctly labelled wheeze. Parents were significantly better at locating than labelling wheeze (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.64-3.73). Parents with asthmatic children were not better at labelling wheeze than those without asthma (OR1.04, 95 % CI 0.59-1.84). Answering in English (OR 3.4, 95 % CI 1.69-7.14) and having older children with asthma (OR 9.09, 95 % CI 3.13-26.32) were associated with correct labelling of wheeze. Other sounds were mislabelled as wheeze by 16.5 % of respondents.

    CONCLUSION: Parental labelling of wheeze was inaccurate especially in the Malay language. Parents were better at identifying the origin of wheeze rather than labelling it. Physicians should be wary about parental reporting of wheeze as it may be inaccurate.

  10. Misra S, Khor GL, Mitchell P, Haque S, Benton D
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:79.
    PMID: 26174581 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0393-9
    BACKGROUND: Sleep is important for children as it directly impacts their mental and physical development. Sleep is not only influenced by the timing but also the macronutrient (carbohydrate and protein) content of meals. Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) describe the quality of carbohydrates in a food and the burden of these foods on the body's blood glucose response. Diets with a high GI/GL may increase the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The present study is piloted to evaluate the short-term impact of milk products with differing glycaemic properties on the sleep patterns of toddlers.
    METHODS: Toddlers were recruited from various day care centres. Informed consent was obtained from both the mothers and the centres. A double-blind randomised controlled trial with a between-subjects design was adopted. The toddlers were randomised to either one of two types of milk with a differing GI ("Low" = 23 and "High = 65") for a period of 3.5 days. There were no other dietary restrictions imposed except that the enrolled child did not consume any other milk during the study period. The sleep patterns were recorded using a Phillips Actiwatch-2, which was worn on the wrist for 24 h over 4 days. The parameters used to measure the sleep pattern were sleep-onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency (SE).
    RESULTS: A total of 56 toddlers completed the study. The toddlers had a mean age of 19.9 +/- 4.3 months. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two GI groups for SOL, TST, WASO and SE at the end of the feeding period.
    CONCLUSIONS: Sleep patterns of toddlers on low-GI milk did not differ from those with high-GI milk consumed over a short period. Future studies should consider the glycaemic effects of other foods, along with milk with differing GI, consumed for a longer feeding duration.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01589003.
  11. Olusanya BO, Ogunlesi TA, Kumar P, Boo NY, Iskander IF, de Almeida MF, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2015 Apr 12;15:39.
    PMID: 25884679 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0358-z
    Hyperbilirubinaemia is a ubiquitous transitional morbidity in the vast majority of newborns and a leading cause of hospitalisation in the first week of life worldwide. While timely and effective phototherapy and exchange transfusion are well proven treatments for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, inappropriate or ineffective treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia, at secondary and tertiary hospitals, still prevails in many poorly-resourced countries accounting for a disproportionately high burden of bilirubin-induced mortality and long-term morbidity. As part of the efforts to curtail the widely reported risks of frequent but avoidable bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) and kernicterus) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) with significant resource constraints, this article presents a practical framework for the management of late-preterm and term infants (≥ 35 weeks of gestation) with clinically significant hyperbilirubinaemia in these countries particularly where local practice guidelines are lacking. Standard and validated protocols were followed in adapting available evidence-based national guidelines on the management of hyperbilirubinaemia through a collaboration among clinicians and experts on newborn jaundice from different world regions. Tasks and resources required for the comprehensive management of infants with or at risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia at all levels of healthcare delivery are proposed, covering primary prevention, early detection, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and follow-up. Additionally, actionable treatment or referral levels for phototherapy and exchange transfusion are proposed within the context of several confounding factors such as widespread exclusive breastfeeding, infections, blood group incompatibilities and G6PD deficiency, which place infants at high risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction in LMICs, as well as the limited facilities for clinical investigations and inconsistent functionality of available phototherapy devices. The need to adjust these levels as appropriate depending on the available facilities in each clinical setting and the risk profile of the infant is emphasised with a view to avoiding over-treatment or under-treatment. These recommendations should serve as a valuable reference material for health workers, guide the development of contextually-relevant national guidelines in each LMIC, as well as facilitate effective advocacy and mobilisation of requisite resources for the optimal care of infants with hyperbilirubinaemia at all levels.
  12. Muthuvelu S, Lim KS, Huang LY, Chin ST, Mohan A
    BMC Pediatr, 2019 07 24;19(1):251.
    PMID: 31340782 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-019-1635-z
    BACKGROUND: Reactivation of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), manifesting as erythema, induration, ulceration or crust formation at a previous BCG inoculation site, is a common and highly specific feature of Kawasaki disease (KD). We report the unusual finding of BCG reactivation in an infant with laboratory-confirmed measles.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 7-month old infant presented initially with fever, cough and coryza, and subsequently developed Koplik's spots followed by a typical morbilliform skin rash. There was significant contact history with a household relative who had recently been diagnosed with measles. On examination, a 2.5 cm area of erythema and induration was seen at the previous BCG inoculation site, in addition to the widespread maculopapular rash. No other clinical features of KD were present. Measles virus was isolated from the throat swab and measles antibodies (IgM) were present in the serum. The patient recovered completely with oral vitamin A and supportive therapy, and had normal echocardiography examination on follow up.

    CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the rare finding of BCG reactivation in a child with confirmed measles infection, and suggests that this clinical manifestation may occasionally occur in children with infections or conditions other than KD.

  13. Yusuf A, Mamun ASMA, Kamruzzaman M, Saw A, Abo El-Fetoh NM, Lestrel PE, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2019 Jul 26;19(1):258.
    PMID: 31349810 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-019-1607-3
    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that name that appeared in published online version is incorrect.
  14. Sharif Ishak SIZ, Chin YS, Mohd Taib MN, Chan YM, Mohd Shariff Z
    BMC Pediatr, 2020 03 14;20(1):122.
    PMID: 32171276 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-020-02023-x
    BACKGROUND: The 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL) intervention programme was developed to prevent overweight and disordered eating in Malaysian adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaL programme on knowledge, attitudes and practices on healthy lifestyle and body composition (body mass index z-score [zBMI], waist circumference [WC] and body fat percentage [BF%]) among adolescents.

    METHODS: All measures were taken at three time points: before intervention (Pre), after intervention (Post I) and 3 months after intervention (Post II). The intervention group (IG) participated in the EPaL programme for 16 weeks, whereas the comparison group (CG) received no intervention. Seventy-six adolescents (IG: n = 34; CG: n = 42) aged 13-14 years were included in the final analysis. Repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the impact of the EPaL intervention programme on the measures between groups (IG and CG) at Post I and Post II.

    RESULTS: The IG reported significantly higher knowledge scores at both Post I (adjusted mean difference = 3.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99, 5.69; p = 0.006) and Post II (adjusted mean difference = 2.82; 95% CI = 0.86, 4.78; p = 0.005) compared with the CG. No significant differences between the IG and CG were found at either Post I or Post II in attitudes, practices, zBMI, WC and BF%. The proportion of participants who were overweight or obese was consistent from Pre to Post II in the IG (35.3%) and increased from 26.2% at Pre to 28.5% at Post II in the CG, but the difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of participants who had abdominal obesity in the IG decreased from 17.6% at Pre to 14.7% at Post II and increased from 16.7% at Pre to 21.4% at Post II in the CG, but the differences were not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: Despite no significant reduction of body composition, this programme shows the positive effect on the adolescents' knowledge regarding healthy lifestyle. This study contributes to the evidence on the effectiveness of school-based health interventions in Malaysian adolescents.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349. Registered 11 October 2016.

  15. Bolisetty S, Osborn D, Schindler T, Sinn J, Deshpande G, Wong CS, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2020 02 08;20(1):59.
    PMID: 32035481 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-020-1958-9
    BACKGROUND: The first consensus standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulations were implemented in many neonatal units in Australia in 2012. The current update involving 49 units from Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia and India was conducted between September 2015 and December 2017 with the aim to review and update the 2012 formulations and guidelines.

    METHODS: A systematic review of available evidence for each parenteral nutrient was undertaken and new standardised formulations and guidelines were developed.

    RESULTS: Five existing preterm Amino acid-Dextrose formulations have been modified and two new concentrated Amino acid-Dextrose formulations added to optimise amino acid and nutrient intake according to gestation. Organic phosphate has replaced inorganic phosphate allowing for an increase in calcium and phosphate content, and acetate reduced. Lipid emulsions are unchanged, with both SMOFlipid (Fresenius Kabi, Australia) and ClinOleic (Baxter Healthcare, Australia) preparations included. The physicochemical compatibility and stability of all formulations have been tested and confirmed. Guidelines to standardise the parenteral nutrition clinical practice across facilities have also been developed.

    CONCLUSIONS: The 2017 PN formulations and guidelines developed by the 2017 Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Consensus Group offer concise and practical instructions to clinicians on how to implement current and up-to-date evidence based PN to the NICU population.

  16. Ma Z, Idris S, Zhang Y, Zewen L, Wali A, Ji Y, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2021 02 24;21(1):95.
    PMID: 33627089 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-021-02550-1
    BACKGROUND: The emerging of psychological problems triggered by COVID-19 particularly in children have been extensively highlighted and emphasized, but original research in this respect is still lagging behind. Therefore, we designed this study to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and the effectiveness and attitudes towards online education among Chinese children aged 7-15 years.

    METHODS: A detailed questionnaire, comprising of 62 questions was designed and parents or caretakers of 7 to 15 years old children were invited to participate via WeChat, a multi-purpose messaging, social media and mobile payment app, which is widely used by the Chinese population. A total of 668 parents across different regions of China were included.

    RESULTS: During COVID-19 pandemic, 20.7 and 7.2% children report experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms due to the COVID-19 pandemic. PTSD and SMFQ-P scores are significantly higher in middle school and boarding school students compared to primary and day school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that school system and province of origin are factors significantly associated with developing PSTD symptoms. 44.3% respondents feel online education is effective in gaining knowledge and improving practical and communications skills. 78.0% believe the online education system is efficient. Overall 79.8% respondents are satisfied and children can adapt to this new education system. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we found 1 in five children have PTSD and 1 in 14 children have depressive symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, COVID-19 epidemic has caused PTSD and depression symptoms among Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years. In general, a large proportion of respondents are satisfied with online education, but still a substantial proportion of students are not comfortable with this new form of learning. Authorities should optimize online education systems and implement effective interventions to cope with the psychological effects of COVID-19 on children, as it is affecting the global population and remains uncertain when it will end.

  17. Mohd Nor NS, Al-Khateeb AM, Chua YA, Mohd Kasim NA, Mohd Nawawi H
    BMC Pediatr, 2019 04 11;19(1):106.
    PMID: 30975109 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-019-1474-y
    BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common inherited metabolic disease with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. It is characterised by raised serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leading to premature coronary artery disease. Children with FH are subjected to early and enhanced atherosclerosis, leading to greater risk of coronary events, including premature coronary artery disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a pair of monochorionic diamniotic identical twins with a diagnosis of heterozygous FH, resulting from mutations in both LDLR and ABCG8 genes.

    CASE PRESENTATION: This is a rare case of a pair of 8-year-old monochorionic diamniotic identical twin, who on family cascade screening were diagnosed as definite FH, according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Criteria (DLCC) with a score of 10. There were no lipid stigmata noted. Baseline lipid profiles revealed severe hypercholesterolaemia, (TC = 10.5 mmol/L, 10.6 mmol/L; LDL-c = 8.8 mmol/L, 8.6 mmol/L respectively). Their father is the index case who initially presented with premature CAD, and subsequently diagnosed as FH. Family cascade screening identified clinical FH in other family members including their paternal grandfather who also had premature CAD, and another elder brother, aged 10 years. Genetic analysis by targeted next-generation sequencing using MiSeq platform (Illumina) was performed to detect mutations in LDLR, APOB100, PCSK9, ABCG5, ABCG8, APOE and LDLRAP1 genes. Results revealed that the twin, their elder brother, father and grandfather are heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.530C > T) in LDLR that was previously reported as a pathogenic mutation. In addition, the twin has heterozygous ABCG8 gene mutation (c.55G > C). Their eldest brother aged 12 years and their mother both had normal lipid profiles with absence of LDLR gene mutation.

    CONCLUSION: A rare case of Asian monochorionic diamniotic identical twin, with clinically diagnosed and molecularly confirmed heterozygous FH, due to LDLR and ABCG8 gene mutations have been reported. Childhood FH may not present with the classical physical manifestations including the pathognomonic lipid stigmata as in adults. Therefore, childhood FH can be diagnosed early using a combination of clinical criteria and molecular analyses.

  18. Chew CC, Chan HK, Chang CT, Hss AS, Hassali MA
    BMC Pediatr, 2021 05 03;21(1):216.
    PMID: 33941117 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-021-02691-3
    BACKGROUND: Caregivers' knowledge, practice and adherence in medication administration who care for children with chronic illness requiring long-term pharmacological treatments are factors associating with children medication safety at home. This study aimed to determine the medication-related knowledge, administration practice and adherence among caregivers of chronically ill children in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the paediatric outpatient clinic of a tertiary public hospital. Caregivers of chronically ill children, who engaged in medication administration at home for at least 3 months, were conveniently recruited. Their medication-related knowledge and administration practice were evaluated based on a checklist, while their adherence to medication administration was assessed using a validated 5-point scale. The associated factors were also explored.

    RESULTS: Of the 141 participants, most were mothers (90.8%) and had a full-time job (55.3%). Most of them had adequate medication-related knowledge (71.6%) and an appropriate administration practice (83.0%). The majority of them (83.0%) also rated themselves as adherent to medication administration. The participants with a child above 5 years of age (91.2%) were found to have a better practice than those with younger children (75.3%) in medication administration (p = 0.012). However, those with a child taking two (adjusted OR: 12.53) or three (adjusted OR: 8.29) medications, getting their refills from private health institutions apart from this hospital (adjusted OR = 7.06) and having multiple illnesses (adjusted OR = 21.25) were more likely to be not adherent to medication administration.

    CONCLUSION: Caregivers of chronically ill children in Malaysia generally have sufficient knowledge and an appropriate practice of medication administration at home. Yet, strategies to improve the adherence to medication administration, particularly in those who care for children with complicated health conditions, are warranted.

  19. Alias H, Morthy SK, Zakaria SZS, Muda Z, Tamil AM
    BMC Pediatr, 2020 02 05;20(1):53.
    PMID: 32020861 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-020-1951-3
    BACKGROUND: Advances in the treatment of childhood brain tumors have significantly improved survival rates. With improved survival rates, long-term treatment-related toxicities have become important, and the resulting complications can affect patients' emotion and behavior. This study aimed to 1) evaluate behavioral outcomes among survivors of childhood brain tumors, 2) compare behavioral outcomes among survivors of childhood brain tumors with survivors of childhood leukemia and healthy children, and 3) determine any demographic, disease, and/or treatment-related factors that could affect the behavioral outcomes of survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year (June 1st, 2018-May 31st, 2019) in two tertiary referral centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Thirty-eight survivors of childhood brain tumors aged 6 to 18 years old who had been off-treatment for at least 1 year and were in remission, 38 age- and gender-matched survivors of childhood leukemia who had been off-treatment for at least 1 year and were in remission, and 38 age- and gender-matched unrelated healthy children were recruited. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) parent report and Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaires were used to assess behavioral outcomes.

    RESULTS: Survivors of childhood brain tumors showed statistically significantly worse behavioral outcomes than healthy children for social problems and attention problems (p 

  20. Wong MNL, Tang IP, Chor YK, Lau KS, John AR, Hii KC, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2020 09 24;20(1):448.
    PMID: 32972390 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-020-02348-7
    BACKGROUND: Haemoptysis is an uncommon presenting symptom in children and is usually caused by acute lower respiratory tract infection or foreign body aspiration. We report a rare case of right unilateral pulmonary vein atresia (PVA) as the underlying aetiology of recurrent haemoptysis in a child.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 4 years old girl presented with history of recurrent haemoptysis. Bronchoscopic evaluation excluded a foreign body aspiration but revealed right bronchial mucosal hyperaemia and varices. Diagnosis of right unilateral PVA was suspected on transthoracic echocardiography which demonstrated hypoplastic right pulmonary artery and non-visualization of right pulmonary veins. Final diagnosis was confirmed on cardiac CT angiography. A conservative treatment approach was opted with consideration for pneumonectomy in future when she is older.

    CONCLUSION: Rarer causes should be considered when investigating for recurrent haemoptysis in children. Bronchoscopy and cardiac imaging are useful tools to establish the diagnosis of unilateral PVA in our case.

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