Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Shanmugam S, Nathan AM, Zaki R, Tan KE, Eg KP, Thavagnanam S, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2016 06 23;16:80.
    PMID: 27339265 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-016-0616-8
    BACKGROUND: Noisy breathing is a common presenting symptom in children. The purpose of this study is to (a) assess parental ability to label wheeze, (b) compare the ability of parents of children with and without asthma to label wheeze and (c) determine factors affecting parental ability to label wheeze correctly.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia involved parents of children with asthma. Parents of children without asthma were the control group. Eleven validated video clips showing wheeze, stridor, transmitted noises, snoring or normal breathing were shown to the parents. Parents were asked, in English or Malay, "What do you call the sound this child is making?" and "Where do you think the sound is coming from?"

    RESULTS: Two hundred parents participated in this study: 100 had children with asthma while 100 did not. Most (71.5 %) answered in Malay. Only 38.5 % of parents correctly labelled wheeze. Parents were significantly better at locating than labelling wheeze (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.64-3.73). Parents with asthmatic children were not better at labelling wheeze than those without asthma (OR1.04, 95 % CI 0.59-1.84). Answering in English (OR 3.4, 95 % CI 1.69-7.14) and having older children with asthma (OR 9.09, 95 % CI 3.13-26.32) were associated with correct labelling of wheeze. Other sounds were mislabelled as wheeze by 16.5 % of respondents.

    CONCLUSION: Parental labelling of wheeze was inaccurate especially in the Malay language. Parents were better at identifying the origin of wheeze rather than labelling it. Physicians should be wary about parental reporting of wheeze as it may be inaccurate.

  2. Tay EL, Lee SWH, Jamaluddin SF, Tam CL, Wong CP
    BMC Pediatr, 2016 04 27;16:56.
    PMID: 27122016 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-016-0590-1
    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies describing the epidemiology of childhood brain injury, especially in developing countries. This study analyses data from the Malaysian National Trauma Database (NTrD) registry to estimate the incidence of childhood brain injury among various demographic groups within the state of Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur.

    METHODS: This study analysed all traumatic brain injury cases for children ages 0-19 included in the 2010 NTrD report.

    RESULTS: A total of 5,836 paediatric patients were admitted to emergency departments (ED) of reporting hospitals for trauma. Of these, 742 patients (12.7 %) suffered from brain injuries. Among those with brain injuries, the mortality rate was 11.9 and 71.2 % were aged between 15 and 19. Traffic accidents were the most common mode of injury (95.4 %). Out of the total for traffic accidents, 80.2 % of brain injuries were incurred in motorcycle accidents. Severity of injury was higher among males and patients who were transferred or referred to the reporting centres from other clinics. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) total score and type of admission were found to be statistically significant, χ (2) (5, N = 178) = 66.53, p 

  3. Zyoud SH, Abu Taha A, Araj KF, Abahri IA, Sawalha AF, Sweileh WM, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:176.
    PMID: 26561029 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0494-5
    BACKGROUND: In primary health care centres, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children are commonly encountered by physicians. Viruses cause most URTIs, but parents' attitudes often represent an important reason for antibiotic abuse, which leads to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The goal of this study was to examine parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about antibiotic use for children with URTIs in Palestine.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary health care centres in Nablus city from 1 June to 31 October 2012. A questionnaire was developed and administered to determine parents' KAP regarding antibiotic use for their children with URTIs.
    RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-five parents completed the questionnaire. A total of 79.7% of the parents were attentive to the truth that antibiotic misuse is responsible for bacterial resistance. Only 18.9% of parents thought that antibiotics did not have any harmful side effects. Fifty nine per cent of parents did not agree that URTIs are mostly viral in origin and are self-limited. Almost 73% of parents choose antibiotics as a treatment for URTIs, while earache (68%) and fever (64%) were the most common reasons for which parents expected antibiotics. However, more than 38% of the parents never asked the paediatrician to prescribe antibiotics, and only 6% congratulated their paediatricians for not prescribing antibiotics.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although there is a trusted relationship between parents and paediatricians, Palestinian parents have insufficient knowledge related to antibiotic use for URTIs in children, which results in inappropriate attitudes and practices. Educational interventions for both parents and physicians will reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and resistance.
  4. Hossain M, Mani KK, Mohd Sidik S, Hayati KS, Rahman AK
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:114.
    PMID: 26357879 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0431-7
    Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh.
  5. Yew CC, Rahman SA, Alam MK
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:169.
    PMID: 26546159 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0495-4
    The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) ankylosis in child is rare and yet the causes still remain unclear. This condition that affects the feeding and possible airway obstruction do not only worry the parents, but also possesses as a great challenge to the surgeons. Furthermore, it interferes with the facial skeletal and dento-alveolar development in the on growing child.
  6. Misra S, Khor GL, Mitchell P, Haque S, Benton D
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:79.
    PMID: 26174581 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0393-9
    Sleep is important for children as it directly impacts their mental and physical development. Sleep is not only influenced by the timing but also the macronutrient (carbohydrate and protein) content of meals. Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) describe the quality of carbohydrates in a food and the burden of these foods on the body's blood glucose response. Diets with a high GI/GL may increase the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The present study is piloted to evaluate the short-term impact of milk products with differing glycaemic properties on the sleep patterns of toddlers.
  7. Olusanya BO, Ogunlesi TA, Kumar P, Boo NY, Iskander IF, de Almeida MF, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2015 Apr 12;15:39.
    PMID: 25884679 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0358-z
    Hyperbilirubinaemia is a ubiquitous transitional morbidity in the vast majority of newborns and a leading cause of hospitalisation in the first week of life worldwide. While timely and effective phototherapy and exchange transfusion are well proven treatments for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, inappropriate or ineffective treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia, at secondary and tertiary hospitals, still prevails in many poorly-resourced countries accounting for a disproportionately high burden of bilirubin-induced mortality and long-term morbidity. As part of the efforts to curtail the widely reported risks of frequent but avoidable bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) and kernicterus) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) with significant resource constraints, this article presents a practical framework for the management of late-preterm and term infants (≥ 35 weeks of gestation) with clinically significant hyperbilirubinaemia in these countries particularly where local practice guidelines are lacking. Standard and validated protocols were followed in adapting available evidence-based national guidelines on the management of hyperbilirubinaemia through a collaboration among clinicians and experts on newborn jaundice from different world regions. Tasks and resources required for the comprehensive management of infants with or at risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia at all levels of healthcare delivery are proposed, covering primary prevention, early detection, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and follow-up. Additionally, actionable treatment or referral levels for phototherapy and exchange transfusion are proposed within the context of several confounding factors such as widespread exclusive breastfeeding, infections, blood group incompatibilities and G6PD deficiency, which place infants at high risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction in LMICs, as well as the limited facilities for clinical investigations and inconsistent functionality of available phototherapy devices. The need to adjust these levels as appropriate depending on the available facilities in each clinical setting and the risk profile of the infant is emphasised with a view to avoiding over-treatment or under-treatment. These recommendations should serve as a valuable reference material for health workers, guide the development of contextually-relevant national guidelines in each LMIC, as well as facilitate effective advocacy and mobilisation of requisite resources for the optimal care of infants with hyperbilirubinaemia at all levels.
  8. Awadh AI, Hassali MA, Al-Lela OQ, Bux SH, Elkalmi RM, Hadi H
    BMC Pediatr, 2014;14:254.
    PMID: 25284603 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-254
    Parents' knowledge about immunization is an important predictor factor for their children's immunization status. The aims of this study were to assess parents' knowledge and to evaluate the effect of a short educational intervention on improving parents' knowledge of childhood immunization.
  9. Khor CS, Sam IC, Hooi PS, Quek KF, Chan YF
    BMC Pediatr, 2012;12:32.
    PMID: 22429933 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-32
    Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old) admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  10. Nurliyana AR, Mohd Shariff Z, Mohd Taib MN, Gan WY, Tan KA
    BMC Pediatr, 2016 Sep 29;16(1):160.
    PMID: 27687906
    The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age.
  11. Sreeramareddy CT, Low YP, Forsberg BC
    BMC Pediatr, 2017 03 21;17(1):83.
    PMID: 28320354 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-017-0836-6
    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains to be a main cause of childhood mortality. Diarrhea case management indicators reflect the effectiveness of child survival interventions. We aimed to assess time trends and country-wise changes in diarrhea case management indicators among under-5 children in low-and-middle-income countries.

    METHODS: We analyzed aggregate data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys done from 1986 to 2012 in low-and-middle-income countries. Two-week prevalence rates of diarrhea, caregiver's care seeking behavior and three case management indicators were analyzed. We assessed overall time trends across the countries using panel data analyses and country-level changes between two sequential surveys.

    RESULTS: Overall, yearly increase in case management indicators ranged from 1 · 3 to 2 · 5%. In the year 2012, <50% of the children were given correct treatment (received oral rehydration and increased fluids) for diarrhea. Annually, an estimated 300 to 350 million children were not given oral rehydration solutions, or recommended home fluids or 'increased fluids' and 304 million children not taken to a healthcare provider during an episode of diarrhea. Overall, care seeking for diarrhea, increased from pre-2000 to post-2000, i.e. from 35 to 45%; oral rehydration rates increased by about 7% but the rate of 'increased fluids' decreased by 14%. Country-level trends showed that care seeking had decreased in 15 countries but increased in 33 countries. Care seeking from a healthcare provider increased by ≥10% in about 23 countries. Oral rehydration rates had increased by ≥10% in 15 countries and in 30 countries oral rehydration rates increased by <10%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Very limited progress has been made in the case management of childhood diarrhea. A better understanding of caregiver's care seeking behavior and health care provider's case management practices is needed to improve diarrhea case management in low- and-middle-income countries.

  12. El Kishawi RR, Soo KL, Abed YA, Muda WAMW
    BMC Pediatr, 2017 12 21;17(1):210.
    PMID: 29268788 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-017-0957-y
    BACKGROUND: Stunting continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality during childhood. In Palestine, it is another health problem, which adds to the catastrophic issues in the region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among preschool children in the Gaza Strip.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Gaza Strip. A total of 357 children aged 2-5 years and their mothers aged 18-50 years were recruited. A multistage cluster sampling was used in the selection of the study participants from three geographical areas in the Gaza Strip: Jabalia refugee camp, El Remal urban area, and Al Qarara rural area. A structured questionnaire was used for face- to -face interviews with the respective child's mother to collect sociodemographic information and feeding practice. Anthropometric measurements for children were taken to classify height-for-age (HAZ), while maternal height was measured as well. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the prevalence and associated factors with stunting.

    RESULTS: The total prevalence of stunting in this study was 19.6%, with the highest prevalence being (22.6%) in Jabalia refugee camp. It turns out that shorter mothers had increased the odds of stunting in preschool children in the Gaza Strip. Children born to mothers whose height was 1.55-1.60 m or <1.55 m were more likely to be stunted (p = 0. 008), or (p 1.60 m. Moreover, parental consanguinity increased the risk of stunted children (p = 0. 015).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the prevalence of stunting was of alarming magnitude in the Gaza Strip. Our results also demonstrated that parental consanguinity and short maternal stature were associated with stunting. Culturally appropriate interventions and appropriate strategies should be implemented to discourage these types of marriages. Policy makers must also raise awareness of the importance of the prevention and control of nutritional problems to combat stunting among children in the Gaza Strip.

  13. Abd-Jamil J, Teoh BT, Hassan EH, Roslan N, Abubakar S
    BMC Pediatr, 2010;10:46.
    PMID: 20594359 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-46
    There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV) known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV) serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI) of young children in Malaysia.
  14. Ramdzan SN, Liew SM, Khoo EM
    BMC Pediatr, 2014;14:132.
    PMID: 24885332 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-132
    Unintentional injuries are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Prevention of unintentional injuries has been shown to be effective with education. Understanding the level of knowledge and practices of caregivers in infant safety would be useful to identify gaps for improvement.
  15. Haque S, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    BMC Pediatr, 2017 May 06;17(1):119.
    PMID: 28477625 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-017-0870-4
    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one of the most common birth defects. Multiple factors are believed to be responsible for an unfavorable dental arch relationship in CLP. Facial growth (maxillary) retardation, which results in class III malocclusion, is the primary challenge that CLP patients face. Phenotype factors and postnatal treatment factors influence treatment outcomes in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) children, which has led to a great diversity in protocols and surgical techniques by various cleft groups worldwide. The aim of this study was to illustrate the dental arch relationship (DAR) and palatal morphology (PM) of UCLP in Bangladeshi children and to explore the various factors that are responsible for poor DAR and PM.

    METHODS: Dental models of 84 subjects were taken before orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting. The mean age was 7.69 (SD 2.46) years. The DAR and PM were assessed blindly by five raters using the EUROCRAN index (EI). Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner agreement, chi square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR and PM.

    RESULTS: The mean EUROCRAN scores were 2.44 and 1.93 for DAR and PM, respectively. Intra- and inter-examiner agreement was moderate to very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analyses, significant associations were found between the modified Millard technique (P = 0.047, P = 0.034 respectively) of cheiloplasty and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = 0.017) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR. The PM showed a significant association with the type of cleft, type of cheiloplasty and type of palatoplasty.

    CONCLUSION: This multivariate study determined that the complete type of UCLP and the modified Millard technique of cheiloplasty had significantly unfavorable effects on both the DAR and PM.

  16. Hossain M, Islam A, Kamarul T, Hossain G
    BMC Pediatr, 2018 03 02;18(1):93.
    PMID: 29499670 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-018-1076-0
    BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding offers incredible health benefits to both child and mother. It is suggested by World Health Organization that an able mother should practice and maintain exclusive breastfeeding for first six months of her infant's life. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding for first six months of an infant's life in Bangladesh.

    METHODS: Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS-2014). BDHS-2014 collected data from 17,863 Bangladeshi married women in reproductive age from the entire country using two stages stratified cluster sampling. We included only mothers having at least one child currently aged not less than 6 months. Mothers who did not have child to breastfeed, some incomplete information and missing samples were excluded from the data set and consequently 3541 mothers were considered in the present study. Chi-square test, binary logistic regression models were used in this study.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for first six months of an infant's life in Bangladesh was 35.90%. Binary multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated that relatively less educated mothers were more likely to exclusively breastfeed their children than higher educated mothers. (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.05-4.93; p 

  17. Li X, Ting TH, Sheng H, Liang CL, Shao Y, Jiang M, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2018 03 06;18(1):101.
    PMID: 29510678 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-018-1060-8
    BACKGROUND: There is scarcity of information on the clinical features and genetics of glucokinase-maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY) in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of Chinese children with GCK-MODY.

    METHODS: Eleven children with asymptomatic hyperglycemia and clinically suspected GCK-MODY were identified from the database of children with diabetes in the biggest children's hospital in South China. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Blood was collected from the patients and their parents for glucokinase (GCK) gene analysis. Parents without diabetes were tested for fasting glucose and HbA1c. Clinical information and blood for GCK gene analysis were obtained from grandparents with diabetes. GCK gene mutational analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Patients without a GCK gene mutation were screened by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for other MODY genes.

    RESULTS: Nine children tested positive for GCK gene mutations while two were negative. The nine GCK-MODY patients were from unrelated families, aged 1 month to 9 years and 1 month at first detection of hyperglycaemia. Fasting glucose was elevated (6.1-8.5 mmol/L), HbA1c 5.2-6.7% (33.3-49.7 mmol/mol), both remained stable on follow-up over 9 months to 5 years. Five detected mutations had been previously reported: p.Val182Met, c.679 + 1G > A, p.Gly295Ser, p.Arg191Gln and p.Met41Thr. Four mutations were novel: c.483 + 2 T > A, p.Ser151del, p.Met57GlyfsX29 and p.Val374_Ala377del. No mutations were identified in the other two patients, who were also tested by NGS.

    CONCLUSIONS: GCK gene mutations are detected in Chinese children and their family members with typical clinical features of GCK-MODY. Four novel mutations are detected.
  18. Woon FC, Chin YS, Ismail IH, Chan YM, Batterham M, Abdul Latiff AH, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2018 07 18;18(1):233.
    PMID: 30021541 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-018-1219-3
    BACKGROUND: Nutrition and environmental factors are essential for the education of the neonatal immune system. Epidemiological evidence has shown that malnutrition and allergic diseases that occur during early childhood share similar protective and risk factors. This paper describes the protocol of the Mother and Infant Cohort Study (MICOS), which aims to determine the contribution of early nutrition to the development of malnutrition and allergic diseases in infants' first year of life.

    METHODS: MICOS is a prospective cohort study conducted at selected government health clinics in two states, namely Selangor and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Women in their third trimester of pregnancy are recruited into the study and their infants will be followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Information on prenatal factors including socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, smoking, family history of allergic diseases, maternal dietary intake and sunlight exposure during pregnancy are obtained through face-to-face interviews. Postnatal factors including dietary intake, sun exposure, and anthropometric measurements of the mothers, as well as feeding practices, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and development of allergic diseases of the infants are assessed at each follow-up. Blood samples are collected from the mothers in the third trimester to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels as well as from the infants at age 12 months to determine atopic sensitisation.

    DISCUSSION: The concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) which emphasises on the role of early life environments in shaping future health and disease susceptibility in adulthood has gained a huge interest in recent years. The DOHaD paradigm has influenced many fields of research including malnutrition and allergic diseases. While findings from the developed countries remain controversial, such studies are scarce in developing countries including Malaysia. The present study will determine the cause and effect relationship between early nutrition and the development of malnutrition and allergic diseases in infants' first year of life.

  19. Yusuf A, Mamun ASMA, Kamruzzaman M, Saw A, Abo El-Fetoh NM, Lestrel PE, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2019 Jul 26;19(1):258.
    PMID: 31349810 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-019-1607-3
    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that name that appeared in published online version is incorrect.
  20. Muthuvelu S, Lim KS, Huang LY, Chin ST, Mohan A
    BMC Pediatr, 2019 Jul 24;19(1):251.
    PMID: 31340782 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-019-1635-z
    BACKGROUND: Reactivation of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), manifesting as erythema, induration, ulceration or crust formation at a previous BCG inoculation site, is a common and highly specific feature of Kawasaki disease (KD). We report the unusual finding of BCG reactivation in an infant with laboratory-confirmed measles.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 7-month old infant presented initially with fever, cough and coryza, and subsequently developed Koplik's spots followed by a typical morbilliform skin rash. There was significant contact history with a household relative who had recently been diagnosed with measles. On examination, a 2.5 cm area of erythema and induration was seen at the previous BCG inoculation site, in addition to the widespread maculopapular rash. No other clinical features of KD were present. Measles virus was isolated from the throat swab and measles antibodies (IgM) were present in the serum. The patient recovered completely with oral vitamin A and supportive therapy, and had normal echocardiography examination on follow up.

    CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the rare finding of BCG reactivation in a child with confirmed measles infection, and suggests that this clinical manifestation may occasionally occur in children with infections or conditions other than KD.

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