• 1 Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
  • 4 Department of Chemical & Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi 43600, Malaysia
  • 5 Divisional Laboratory, Soil Resource Development Institute, Krishi Khamar Sarak, Farmgate, Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020 Nov 11;17(22).
PMID: 33187288 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17228339


Constructed wetlands (CWs) are affordable and reliable green technologies for the treatment of various types of wastewater. Compared to conventional treatment systems, CWs offer an environmentally friendly approach, are low cost, have fewer operational and maintenance requirements, and have a high potential for being applied in developing countries, particularly in small rural communities. However, the sustainable management and successful application of these systems remain a challenge. Therefore, after briefly providing basic information on wetlands and summarizing the classification and use of current CWs, this study aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development of their sustainable design, operation, and optimization for wastewater treatment. To accomplish this objective, thee design and management parameters of CWs, including macrophyte species, media types, water level, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and hydraulic loading rate (HLR), are discussed. Besides these, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs are highlighted. This article provides a tool for researchers and decision-makers for using CWs to treat wastewater in a particular area. This paper presents an aid for informed analysis, decision-making, and communication. The review indicates that major advances in the design, operation, and optimization of CWs have greatly increased contaminant removal efficiencies, and the sustainable application of this treatment system has also been improved.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

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