• 1 College of Economics and Management, Guiyang University, Guiyang, China
  • 2 Ecole Supérieure de Technologie et d'Informatique, Manouba University, Tunis, Tunisia
  • 3 College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 4 Department of Law, University of Raparin, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • 5 Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Changlun, Malaysia.
PMID: 33405137 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-12242-5


The present paper implements the quantile autoregressive lagged (QARDL) approach of Cho et al. (2015) and the Granger causality in quantiles tests of Troster et al. (2018) to explore the nonlinear effects of US energy consumption, economic growth, and tourist arrivals on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Our results unveil the existence of substantial reversion to the long-run equilibrium connectedness between the variables of interest and CO2 emissions. The outcomes show that tourist arrivals decrease CO2 emissions in the long term for each quantile. In addition, we found that the output growth positively influences the carbon emissions at lower quantiles but negatively influences the carbon emissions at upper quantiles. Moreover, our findings of short-term dynamics validate an asymmetric short-run effect of tourist arrivals and economic growth on CO2 emissions in the US economy. Further results and their corresponding policy implications are discussed.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.