Globalization persists the tendency to alter numerous aspects of today's world including religion, transport, language, living styles, and international relations; however, its potential to influence quality of environment is the prime concern for trade and environmental policies guidelines (Audi and Ali 2018). In response to the growing interest for identifying the dynamic relationship between globalization and environmental performance, the present study seeks to investigate the critical link between globalization and ecological footprints in top 15 globalized countries between 1970 and 2016. Applying the novel methods of quantile-on-quantile regression (QQ) and Granger causality in quantiles, the findings examine the manners in which quantiles of globalization affect the quantiles of ecological footprints and vice versa. The empirical results suggest that globalization has a long-term positive effect on ecological footprint and vice versa in case of Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Canada, and Portugal. On the other hand, the estimated results indicate a negative effect between globalization and ecological footprint in the case of France, Germany, the UK, and Hungary. These results extend the recent findings on the globalization-environment nexus implying that the magnitude of relationship among both variables varies with countries demanding individual focus and cautions for postulating environmental and trade policies.
We employ the new Method of Moments Quantile Regression approach to expose the role of natural resources, renewable energy, and globalization in testing Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) in MINT panel covering the years 1995-2018. The outcome validates the EKC curve between economic progress and carbon emissions from the third quantile to the extreme highest quantile. The result also shows that natural resources increase CO2 emissions at the lowest quantile and then turn insignificant from the middle to the highest quantiles due to the potential utilization of resources in a sustainable manner. The renewable energy mitigates CO2 emissions at the lower half quantiles. Still, for upper quantiles, the results are unexpected and imply that the countries' total energy mix depends heavily on fossil fuels. As far as globalization is concerned, the significant results from medium to upper quantiles reveal that as globalization heightens due to foreign direct investment or trade, energy consumption also expands, leading to the worst environment quality. Thus, the present study's consequences deliver guidelines for policymakers to utilize natural resources sustainably and opt technologies based on clean energy, which may offset environmental degeneration.
This paper assesses the Environmental Kuznets curve based on quantile behavior of the relationship between economic growth, forest area, agriculture production, renewable energy, and environmental degradation. The current literature generally used a single indicator to address environmental issues; however single indicator neither measures overall environmental conditions nor does specify that the environment issue is generally diminishing. Our study is the first one that used ecological footprint (EF) as an indicator to test environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Pakistan by employing recent approach of quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) initiated by Cho et al. (J Econ 188(1):281-300, 2015). The result of this study validates the EKC hypothesis for Pakistan and shows quantile-dependent relationship, and in that case, using the conventional methods may somewhat lead to biased results. Moreover, the rejection of the null hypothesis of parameter constancy is also confirmed by Wald test. In the long run, the findings of renewable energy consumption and forest area show significant negative effects on ecological footprints, which indicates that by increasing renewable energy usage and forest area, ecological footprints can be minimized. Interestingly, the short-term effects of agricultural production findings on EF show statistically negative results. This illustrates that EF can also be reduced in the agriculture sector by adopting environment-friendly technologies. In order to create efficient policies for environment deterioration, the empirical findings of the current analysis can be used as a guideline for policy implications.
In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), health services have developed greatly in the past 40 years. To ensure they continue to meet the needs of the population, innovation and change are required including investment in a strong e-Health infrastructure with a single transferrable electronic patient record. In this paper, using the Emirate of Dubai as a case study, we report on the Middle East Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model (EMRAM). Between 2011-2016, the number of participating hospitals has increased from 23 to 33. Currently, while 20/33 of hospitals are at Stage 2 or less, 10/33 have reached Stage 5. Also Dubai's median EMRAM score in 2016 (2.5) was higher than the scores reported from Australia (2.2), New Zealand (2.3), Malaysia (0.06), the Philippines (0.06) and Thailand (0.5). EMRAM has allowed the tracking of the progress being made by healthcare facilities in Dubai towards upgrading their information technology infrastructure and the introduction of electronic medical records.
This novel research is an argumentative subject which was needed to be addressed and to fill this gap, the author examined the effect of financial development, information and communication technology, and institutional quality on CO2 emission in Pakistan by using quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) model. The data were obtained for the period from 1995Q1 to 2018Q4. In the long run, GDP and institutional quality have a positive impact on CO2 emission when this emission is already high, which shows that if the GDP and institutional quality increases, the CO2 emission also increases. Moreover, financial development and ICT has a negative impact on CO2 emission irrespective of emission level that whether it is high or low in the country, which shows that if financial enhancement and ICT increases, carbon emission decreases. The study also supported the EKC hypothesis in Pakistan.
This study examines the association between transportation services (i.e., passenger and freight) and carbon emissions concerning the US economy. The monthly data for this study were collected for the period from 2000 M1 to 2019 M8. In this study, QARDL econometric approach as discussed by Cho et al. (2015) has been used to tests the relationship between transportation services and CO2 emissions. Due to the chaotic and nonlinear behavior of our concerning variables, it was quite difficult to gauge the principle properties of their variations. Therefore, we relied on QARDL, which has been missing in previous researches. By utilizing the QARDL method, this research assesses the long-term stability of the nexus across the quantiles to provide an econometric framework that is more flexible than the traditional ones. In particular, the authors have analyzed how the quantiles of transportation (i.e., passenger and freight) influence the quantiles of CO2 emissions (environmental degradation). The empirical evidence revealed the negative significant relationship of both the transportation system (i.e., passenger and freight) with carbon emissions; however, this relationship holds at low quantiles of freight transport, whereas the same relationship has been observed at the majority of quantiles of passenger transport. So, this depicts that the transportation system of the USA helps to reduce CO2 emissions. Therefore, to maintain this situation, the government shall introduce more technologies that are fuel-efficient and promote clean consumption, thus reducing CO2 emissions, boosting economic growth, and making green transportation services.
This paper uses the quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) model to analyze the impact of economic growth, tourism, transportation, and globalization on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Malaysian economy. The QARDL model is employed utilizing quarterly data from 1995Q1 to 2018Q4. The results demonstrate that economic growth is significantly positive with CO2 emissions at lower to upper quantiles. Interestingly, tourism has a negative effect on CO2 emissions at higher quantiles. Moreover, globalization and transportation services are positive, with CO2 emissions at upper-middle to higher quantiles. Furthermore, we tested the environmental Kuznets curve, and the outcomes confirm the presence of the inverted U-shaped curve in the Malaysian economy. The results of this study suggest that ecotourism is beneficial for economic growth in underdeveloped areas; it increases employment opportunities and, thus, achieves a win-win situation for protection and development. The government should encourage the low-carbon development of ecotourism and achieve green development of both tourism and the economy.
Considering the importance of green economic growth and environmental sustainability in the discussion, it is crucial to understand its critical contributing factors and to draw results implications for the green policy. This research used the data of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries for a period from 2005 to 2017. It adopted the panel autoregressive distributed lag technique to examine the hypotheses. The findings revealed that environmental sustainability is strongly and positively associated with national scale-level green practices, including renewable energy, regulatory pressure, and eco-friendly policies, and sustainable use of natural resources. Conversely, in our model, the "regulatory pressure" has an insignificant effect on economic growth. A necessary contribution of the present study is that a positive effect of green practices on national scale economic and environmental variables, particularly in the scenario of SAARC member states, can be noticed. At the end of the present study, we have provided policy implications for regulatory authorities and discussed potential areas for future research.
This paper presents a fresh understanding of the vigorous connection between inward FDI, renewable energy consumption, economic growth and carbon emission in the Chinese economy employing novel Morlet wavelet analysis. Wavelet correlation, continuous wavelet transform and partial and the multiple wavelet coherence analyses are applied on variables under study for data acquired during the period 1979 to 2017. The outcome of these analyses reveals that the connections among the variables progress over frequency and time. From the frequency domain point of view, the current study discovers noteworthy wavelet coherence and robust lead and lag linkages, although time domain reveals inconsistent associations among the considered variables. The wavelet analysis according to economic point of view supports that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and renewable energy consumption help to enhance economic condition in Chinese economy. The results also suggested that inward FDI enhances the environmental degradation in medium and long run in China. The results emphasize the significance of having organized strategies by the policymakers to cope with huge environmental degradation occurred for a couple of decades in China.
With the growing interest among researchers in analyzing the ecological footprint of any country, this study focuses on new dimensions to analyze the long-run and short-run asymmetric impact of tourism, financial development, and globalization on ecological footprint in Turkey by using Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag model for the period from 1986 to 2018. Further, the EKC hypothesis was also tested. The results show that tourism, globalization, and financial development are positively and significantly associated with the EFP. This means that the increase in these variables will further increase the ecological footprint in Turkey. The U-shaped EKC curve was found to be valid in Turkey. The results also depict nonlinear and asymmetric association among most of the variables. Hence, based on the results, further research directions and practical implications can be suggested.
BRICS are among the rising nations which drive economic growth by excessive utilization of resources and resulting in environment degradation. Although there is bulk of research on environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), very limited studies explored the scope in context of tourism in BRICS countries. So this research is conducted to explore the association of tourism, renewable energy, and economic growth with carbon emissions by using annual data of BRICS countries from the year 1995 to 2018. By using the recent approach of method of moments quantile regression (MMQR), the finding shows that tourism has stronger significant negative effects from 10th to 40th quantile while the effects are insignificant at remaining quantiles. Furthermore, an inverted U-shape EKC curve is also apparent at all quantiles excluding 10th and 20th quantiles. For renewable energy, the results are found negatively significant across all quantiles (10th-90th) which claim that CO2 emission can be reduced by opting renewable sources. Hence, the empirical results of the current study provide insights for policymakers to consume renewable energy sources for the sustainable economic growth and solution of environmental problems.
The present paper implements the quantile autoregressive lagged (QARDL) approach of Cho et al. (2015) and the Granger causality in quantiles tests of Troster et al. (2018) to explore the nonlinear effects of US energy consumption, economic growth, and tourist arrivals on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Our results unveil the existence of substantial reversion to the long-run equilibrium connectedness between the variables of interest and CO2 emissions. The outcomes show that tourist arrivals decrease CO2 emissions in the long term for each quantile. In addition, we found that the output growth positively influences the carbon emissions at lower quantiles but negatively influences the carbon emissions at upper quantiles. Moreover, our findings of short-term dynamics validate an asymmetric short-run effect of tourist arrivals and economic growth on CO2 emissions in the US economy. Further results and their corresponding policy implications are discussed.
This study draws the link between COVID-19 and air pollution (ground ozone O3) from February 29, 2020 to July 10, 2020 in the top 10 affected States of the US. Utilizing quantile-on-quantile (QQ) estimation technique, we examine in what manner the quantiles of COVID-19 affect the quantiles of air pollution and vice versa. The primary findings confirm overall dependence between COVID-19 and air pollution. Empirical results exhibit a strong negative effect of COVID-19 on air pollution in New York, Texas, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania; especially at medium to higher quantiles, while New Jersey, Illinois, Arizona, and Georgia show strong negative effect mainly at lower quantiles. Contrarily, COVID-19 positively affects air pollution in Pennsylvania at extreme lower quantiles. On the other side, air pollution predominantly caused to increase in the intensity of COVID-19 cases across all states except lower quantiles of Massachusetts, and extreme higher quantiles of Arizona and New Jersey, where this effect becomes less pronounced or negative. Concludingly, a rare positive fallout of COVID-19 is reducing environmental pressure, while higher environmental pollution causes to increase the vulnerability of COVID-19 cases. These findings imply that air pollution is at the heart of chronic diseases, therefore the state government should consider these asymmetric channels and introduce appropriate policy measures to reset and control atmospheric emissions.
The aim of this research is to explore the association between financial development, research and development (R&D) expenditures, globalization, institutional quality, and energy consumption in India by using the quarterly data of 1995-2018. Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (QARDL) approach is employed to examine the relationship. An application of the QARDL approach suggests that the R&D, financial development, globalization, and institutional quality significantly influence energy utilization in India. R&D and institutional quality have a negative effect on energy utilization which shows that due to the increase in the quality of institutions and R&D in the country, energy utilization is likely to decrease. However, globalization and financial performance have a positive influence on energy which depicts that due to the increase in financial performance and globalization in India the energy consumption is likely to increase. According to the outcomes of this research, India should make a policy to ease the penalties of energy utilization by monitoring resource transfer by means of globalization and by implementing energy conversation procedures through the advancement of the financial sector.
The aim of this study is to identify and highlight the positive and negative indirect environmental impacts of COVID-19, with a particular focus on the most affected economies (USA, China, Spain, and Italy). In this respect, the empirical and theoretical dimensions of the contents of those impacts are analyzed. Research findings reveal a significant relationship between contingency actions and positive indirect impacts such as air quality improvements, clean beaches, and the decline in environmental noise. Besides, negative indirect impacts also exist, such as the rise in waste level and curtailment in recycling, further threatening the physical spaces (land and water), besides air. It is expected that global businesses will revive in the near future (though slowly), but the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions during this short time span is not a sustainable way of environmental mitigation. Thus, long-term mitigation policies should be strengthened to cope with the undesirable deterioration of the environment. Research findings provide an up-to-date glimpse of the pandemic from the perspectives of current and future indirect environmental impacts and the post-pandemic situation. Finally, it is suggested to invent and prepare action plans to induce a sustainable economic and environmental future in the post-pandemic world scenario.
This study is a scholarly effort to broaden the existing literature on the impact of transportation services, urbanization, and financial development on ecological footprints in Pakistan. Data used in this study covers the period of 39 years from 1980 to 2018. This study adopted the QARDL model to tackle the non-linear association of variables and test their long-run stability across the different quantiles. The findings of this study indicated a significant negative association of transportation services and financial development with ecological footprints in Pakistan at almost all quantiles whereas, the urban population was found to be positively associated with the ecological footprint in Pakistan. Results also justify the existence of the EKC hypothesis in the scenario of Pakistan. Policymakers are advised to frame strategies for investors to invest more in eco-friendly projects to curtail the ecological footprints in Pakistan. Minimizing the dependency of the transportation sector on fossil fuel, and increased use of energy-efficient appliances in the urban population would be beneficial to control the negative influence on ecological footprints in Pakistan.
It is well documented that carbon emissions can be reduced by replacing conventional energy resources with renewable energy resources; thereby, the role of green technology is essential as it protect natural environment. Given that, the United Nations' agenda of "green is clean" may be achievable by adoption of green technologies. The objective of the study is to examine the link between information and communication technology (ICT), economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the context of South Korean economy, by using a novel Morlet wavelet approach. The study applies continuous wavelet power spectrum, the wavelet coherency, and the partial and the multiple wavelet coherency to the year during 1973-2016. The outcomes reveal that the connections among the stated variables progress over frequency and time domain. From the frequency domain point of view, the current study discovers noteworthy wavelet coherence and robust lead and lag linkages. From the time-domain sight, the results display robust but not consistent associations among the considered variables. From an economic point sight, the wavelet method displays that ICT helps to reduce environmental degradation in a medium and long run in the South Korean economy. This emphasizes the significance of having organized strategies by the policymakers to cope up with 2 to 3 years of the occurrence of the huge environmental degradation in South Korea.
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is characterized by the development of abscesses, mainly in superficial and internal lymph nodes, visceral and reproductive organs in small ruminants. This study aims to examine the histopathological changes in reproductive organs of goats immunized with killed vaccine of C. pseudotuberculosis. In this study, twenty four (24) clinically healthy bucks and does were divided into four groups A, B, C and D. Animals in groups A and B were immunized with 0.5 and 1% formalin killed vaccine, respectively; followed by a booster dose. After the booster dose of immunization, groups A, B and C were challenged with C. pseudotuberculosis at 106 cfu/ml. Goats in group D were immunize and unchallenged and left as control group. All C. pseudotuberculosis infected animals were euthanized humanely 12 weeks post-challenged. Tissue samples such as testes, epididymis, spermatic cord, penis, pituitary gland, mammary gland, vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovaries were collected for histopathology study. Microscopic examination of all tissues (testes, seminiferous tubules, spermatic cord, penile tissues and the pituitary gland) in the male reproductive organs of the bucks that were inoculated with 2 ml of 0.5% and 1.0% of C. pseudotuberculosis killed vaccine showed normal (animals inoculated with 1.0%) to mild (animals inoculated with 0.5%) histopathological changes when compared with those from group C which showed varying degrees of histopathological changes (p