• 1 Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China
  • 2 Centre of Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), Dhaka 1216, Bangladesh
Molecules, 2021 Jan 29;26(3).
PMID: 33572728 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030699


Volumetric Muscle Loss (VML) is associated with muscle loss function and often untreated and considered part of the natural sequelae of trauma. Various types of biomaterials with different physical and properties have been developed to treat VML. However, much work remains yet to be done before the scaffolds can pass from the bench to the bedside. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the construction and application of natural polymers-based tissue scaffolding for volumetric muscle injury. Here, the tissue engineering approaches for treating volumetric muscle loss injury are highlighted and recent advances in cell-based therapies using various sources of stem cells are elaborated in detail. An overview of different strategies of tissue scaffolding and their efficacy on skeletal muscle cells regeneration and migration are presented. Furthermore, the present paper discusses a wide range of natural polymers with a special focus on proteins and polysaccharides that are major components of the extracellular matrices. The natural polymers are biologically active and excellently promote cell adhesion and growth. These bio-characteristics justify natural polymers as one of the most attractive options for developing scaffolds for muscle cell regeneration.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.