Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Ali A, Andriyana A, Hassan SBA, Ang BC
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Apr 29;13(9).
    PMID: 33947012 DOI: 10.3390/polym13091437
    The development of advanced composite materials has taken center stage because of its advantages over traditional materials. Recently, carbon-based advanced additives have shown promising results in the development of advanced polymer composites. The inter- and intra-laminar fracture toughness in modes I and II, along with the thermal and electrical conductivities, were investigated. The HMWCNTs/epoxy composite was prepared using a multi-dispersion method, followed by uniform coating at the mid-layers of the CF/E prepregs interface using the spray coating technique. Analysis methods, such as double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure (ENF) tests, were carried out to study the mode I and II fracture toughness. The surface morphology of the composite was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The DCB test showed that the fracture toughness of the 0.2 wt.% and 0.4 wt.% HMWCNT composite laminates was improved by 39.15% and 115.05%, respectively, compared with the control sample. Furthermore, the ENF test showed that the mode II interlaminar fracture toughness for the composite laminate increased by 50.88% and 190%, respectively. The FESEM morphology results confirmed the HMWCNTs bridging at the fracture zones of the CF/E composite and the improved interlaminar fracture toughness. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results demonstrated a strong intermolecular bonding between the epoxy and HMWCNTs, resulting in an improved thermal stability. Moreover, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results confirmed that the addition of HMWCNT shifted the Tg to a higher temperature. An electrical conductivity study demonstrated that a higher CNT concentration in the composite laminate resulted in a higher conductivity improvement. This study confirmed that the demonstrated dispersion technique could create composite laminates with a strong interfacial bond interaction between the epoxy and HMWCNT, and thus improve their properties.
  2. Ch'ng SY, Andriyana A, Tee YL, Verron E
    Materials (Basel), 2015 Mar 02;8(3):884-898.
    PMID: 28787977 DOI: 10.3390/ma8030884
    The effect of carbon black on the mechanical properties of elastomers is of great interest, because the filler is one of principal ingredients for the manufacturing of rubber products. While fillers can be used to enhance the properties of elastomers, including stress-free swelling resistance in solvent, it is widely known that the introduction of fillers yields significant inelastic responses of elastomers under cyclic mechanical loading, such as stress-softening, hysteresis and permanent set. When a filled elastomer is under mechanical deformation, the filler acts as a strain amplifier in the rubber matrix. Since the matrix local strain has a profound effect on the material's ability to absorb solvent, the study of the effect of carbon black content on the swelling characteristics of elastomeric components exposed to solvent in the presence of mechanical deformation is a prerequisite for durability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of carbon black content on the swelling of elastomers in solvent in the presence of static mechanical strains: simple extension and simple torsion. Three different types of elastomers are considered: unfilled, filled with 33 phr (parts per hundred) and 66 phr of carbon black. The peculiar role of carbon black on the swelling characteristics of elastomers in solvent in the presence of mechanical strain is explored.
  3. Abdullah MF, Nuge T, Andriyana A, Ang BC, Muhamad F
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Dec 04;11(12).
    PMID: 31817133 DOI: 10.3390/polym11122008
    The key attributes of core-shell fibers are their ability to preserve bioactivity of incorporated-sensitive biomolecules (such as drug, protein, and growth factor) and subsequently control biomolecule release to the targeted microenvironments to achieve therapeutic effects. Such qualities are highly favorable for tissue engineering and drug delivery, and these features are not able to be offered by monolithic fibers. In this review, we begin with an overview on design requirement of core-shell fibers, followed by the summary of recent preparation methods of core-shell fibers, with focus on electrospinning-based techniques and other newly discovered fabrication approaches. We then highlight the importance and roles of core-shell fibers in tissue engineering and drug delivery, accompanied by thorough discussion on controllable release strategies of the incorporated bioactive molecules from the fibers. Ultimately, we touch on core-shell fibers-related challenges and offer perspectives on their future direction towards clinical applications.
  4. Leong CN, Lim E, Andriyana A, Al Abed A, Lovell NH, Hayward C, et al.
    PMID: 27043925 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.2794
    Infarct extension, a process involving progressive extension of the infarct zone (IZ) into the normally perfused border zone (BZ), leads to continuous degradation of the myocardial function and adverse remodelling. Despite carrying a high risk of mortality, detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to BZ hypoxia and infarct extension remains unexplored. In the present study, we developed a 3D truncated ellipsoidal left ventricular model incorporating realistic electromechanical properties and fibre orientation to examine the mechanical interaction among the remote, infarct and BZs in the presence of varying infarct transmural extent (TME). Localized highly abnormal systolic fibre stress was observed at the BZ, owing to the simultaneous presence of moderately increased stiffness and fibre strain at this region, caused by the mechanical tethering effect imposed by the overstretched IZ. Our simulations also demonstrated the greatest tethering effect and stress in BZ regions with fibre direction tangential to the BZ-remote zone boundary. This can be explained by the lower stiffness in the cross-fibre direction, which gave rise to a greater stretching of the IZ in this direction. The average fibre strain of the IZ, as well as the maximum stress in the sub-endocardial layer, increased steeply from 10% to 50% infarct TME, and slower thereafter. Based on our stress-strain loop analysis, we found impairment in the myocardial energy efficiency and elevated energy expenditure with increasing infarct TME, which we believe to place the BZ at further risk of hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  5. Tan SX, Andriyana A, Lim S, Ong HC, Pang YL, Ngoh GC
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Dec 15;13(24).
    PMID: 34960953 DOI: 10.3390/polym13244398
    The present study was conducted to optimize the extraction yield of starch from sago (Metroxylon sagu) pith waste (SPW) with the assistance of ultrasound ensued by the transformation of extracted starch into a higher value-added bioplastic film. Sago starch with extraction yield of 71.4% was successfully obtained using the ultrasound-assisted extraction, with the following conditions: particle size <250 µm, solid loading of 10 wt.%, ultrasonic amplitude of 70% and duty cycle of 83% in 5 min. The rapid ultrasound approach was proven to be more effective than the conventional extraction with 60.9% extraction yield in 30 min. Ultrasound-extracted starch was found to exhibit higher starch purity than the control starch as indicated by the presence of lower protein and ash contents. The starch granules were found to have irregular and disrupted surfaces after ultrasonication. The disrupted starch granules reduced the particle size and increased the swelling power of starch which was beneficial in producing a film-forming solution. The ultrasound-extracted sago starch was subsequently used to prepare a bioplastic film via solution casting method. A brownish bioplastic film with tensile strength of 0.9 ± 0.1 MPa, Young's modulus of 22 ± 0.8 MPa, elongation at break of 13.6 ± 2.0% and water vapour permeability (WVP) of 1.11 ± 0.1 × 10-8 g m-1 s-1 Pa-1 was obtained, suggesting its feasibility as bioplastic material. These findings provide a means of utilization for SPW which is in line with the contemporary trend towards greener and sustainable products and processes.
  6. Tan SX, Ong HC, Andriyana A, Lim S, Pang YL, Kusumo F, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2022 Jan 11;14(2).
    PMID: 35054685 DOI: 10.3390/polym14020278
    Bioplastic has been perceived as a promising candidate to replace petroleum-based plastics due to its environment-friendly and biodegradable characteristics. This study presents the chitosan reinforced starch-based bioplastic film prepared by the solution casting and evaporation method. The effects of processing parameters, i.e., starch concentration, glycerol loading, process temperature and chitosan loading on mechanical properties were examined. Optimum tensile strength of 5.19 MPa and elongation at break of 44.6% were obtained under the combined reaction conditions of 5 wt.% starch concentration, 40 wt.% glycerol loading, 20 wt.% chitosan loading and at a process temperature of 70 °C. From the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling, the coefficient of determination (R2) for tensile strength and elongation at break were found to be 0.9955 and 0.9859, respectively, which proved the model had good fit with the experimental data. Interaction and miscibility between starch and chitosan were proven through the peaks shifting to a lower wavenumber in FTIR and a reduction of crystallinity in XRD. TGA results suggested the chitosan-reinforced starch-based bioplastic possessed reasonable thermal stability under 290 °C. Enhancement in water resistance of chitosan-incorporated starch-based bioplastic film was evidenced with a water uptake of 251% as compared to a 302% registered by the pure starch-based bioplastic film. In addition, the fact that the chitosan-reinforced starch-based bioplastic film degraded to 52.1% of its initial weight after 28 days suggests it is a more sustainable alternative than the petroleum-based plastics.
  7. Low YJ, Kittur MI, Andriyana A, Ang BC, Zainal Abidin NI
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2023 Apr;140:105723.
    PMID: 36821908 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2023.105723
    Poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGCL) has become a novice to the bioresorbable suture owing to the synergistic properties taken from the homo-polyglycolide (PGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) such as excellent bioresorption and flexibility. In addition to under conventional monotonic loading, the understanding of mechanical responses of PGCL copolymers under complex loading conditions such as cyclic and stress relaxation is crucial for its application as a surgical suture. Consequently, the present work focuses on evaluating the mechanical responses of PGCL sutures under monotonic, cyclic, and stress relaxation loading conditions. Under monotonic loading, the stress-strain behavior of the PGCL suture was found to be non-linear with noticeable strain-rate dependence. Under cyclic loading, inelastic responses including stress-softening, hysteresis and permanent set were observed. During cyclic loading, both stress-softening and hysteresis were found to increase with the maximum strain. In multi-step stress relaxation, the PGCL sutures were observed to exhibit a strong viscoelastic response. In an attempt to describe the relationship between the stress-relaxation and strain-induced crystallization (SIC) occurring during the loading and relaxation processes, a schematic illustration of the conformational change of polymer chains in PGCL sutures was proposed in this work. Results showed that SIC was dependent on the strain level as well as the loading and relaxation durations. The inelastic phenomena observed in PGCL sutures can be thus correlated to the combined effect of stress relaxation and SIC.
  8. Nuge T, Liu Z, Liu X, Ang BC, Andriyana A, Metselaar HSC, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 29;26(3).
    PMID: 33572728 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030699
    Volumetric Muscle Loss (VML) is associated with muscle loss function and often untreated and considered part of the natural sequelae of trauma. Various types of biomaterials with different physical and properties have been developed to treat VML. However, much work remains yet to be done before the scaffolds can pass from the bench to the bedside. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the construction and application of natural polymers-based tissue scaffolding for volumetric muscle injury. Here, the tissue engineering approaches for treating volumetric muscle loss injury are highlighted and recent advances in cell-based therapies using various sources of stem cells are elaborated in detail. An overview of different strategies of tissue scaffolding and their efficacy on skeletal muscle cells regeneration and migration are presented. Furthermore, the present paper discusses a wide range of natural polymers with a special focus on proteins and polysaccharides that are major components of the extracellular matrices. The natural polymers are biologically active and excellently promote cell adhesion and growth. These bio-characteristics justify natural polymers as one of the most attractive options for developing scaffolds for muscle cell regeneration.
  9. Leong CN, Dokos S, Andriyana A, Liew YM, Chan BT, Abdul Aziz YF, et al.
    Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng, 2020 01;36(1):e3291.
    PMID: 31799767 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.3291
    Myocardial infarct extension, a process involving the enlargement of infarct and border zone, leads to progressive degeneration of left ventricular (LV) function and eventually gives rise to heart failure. Despite carrying a high risk, the causation of infarct extension is still a subject of much speculation. In this study, patient-specific LV models were developed to investigate the correlation between infarct extension and impaired regional mechanics. Subsequently, sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the causal factors responsible for the impaired regional mechanics observed in regions surrounding the infarct and border zone. From our simulations, fibre strain, fibre stress and fibre stress-strain loop (FSSL) were the key biomechanical variables affected in these regions. Among these variables, only FSSL was correlated with infarct extension, as reflected in its work density dissipation (WDD) index value, with high WDD indices recorded at regions with infarct extension. Impaired FSSL is caused by inadequate contraction force generation during the isovolumic contraction and ejection phases. Our further analysis revealed that the inadequacy in contraction force generation is not necessarily due to impaired myocardial intrinsic contractility, but at least in part, due to inadequate muscle fibre stretch at end-diastole, which depresses the ability of myocardium to generate adequate contraction force in the subsequent systole (according to the Frank-Starling law). Moreover, an excessively stiff infarct may cause its neighbouring myocardium to be understretched at end-diastole, subsequently depressing the systolic contractile force of the neighbouring myocardium, which was found to be correlated with infarct extension.
  10. Uppin VS, Gouda PSS, Kittur MI, Andriyana A, Ang BC, Parveez B, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2022 Nov 30;15(23).
    PMID: 36500042 DOI: 10.3390/ma15238545
    Graphene-based fillers possess exceptional properties that encourage researchers toward their incorporation in glass-epoxy (GE) polymer composites. Regarding the mechanical and wear properties of glass-epoxy composites, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) reinforced in glass-epoxy was examined. A decrease in tensile modulus and increase in tensile strength was reported for 1 wt. % of GO. A shift in glass transition temperature Tg was observed with the addition of GO. The cross-link density and storage modulus of the composite decreased with the addition of GO. The decrease in dissipation energy and wear rate was reported with the increase in GO concentration. A simple one-dimensional damage model of nonlinear nature was developed to capture the stress-strain behavior of the unfilled and filled glass-epoxy composite. Tensile modulus E, Weibull scale parameter σo, and Weibull shape parameter β were considered to develop the model. Finally, to understand the failure mechanisms in GO-filled composites, a scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination was carried out for tensile fractured composites.
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