• 1 Centre for Multimodal Signal Processing, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 Medical Devices and Technology Centre, Institute of Human Centered Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Int J Artif Organs, 2022 Feb;45(2):200-206.
PMID: 33645338 DOI: 10.1177/0391398821999391


Glenoid conformity is one of the important aspects that could contribute to implant stability. However, the optimal conformity is still being debated among the researchers. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the stress distribution of the implant and cement in three types of conformity (conform, non-conform, and hybrid) in three load conditions (central, anterior, and posterior). Glenoid implant and cement were reconstructed using Solidwork software and a 3D model of scapula bone was done using MIMICS software. Constant load, 750 N, was applied at the central, anterior, and posterior region of the glenoid implant which represents average load for daily living activities for elder people, including, walking with a stick and standing up from a chair. The results showed that, during center load, an implant with dual conformity (hybrid) showed the best (Max Stress-3.93 MPa) and well-distributed stress as compared to other conformity (Non-conform-7.21 MPa, Conform-9.38 MPa). While, during eccentric load (anterior and posterior), high stress was located at the anterior and posterior region with respect to the load applied. Cement stress for non-conform and hybrid implant recorded less than 5 MPa, which indicates it had a very low risk to have cement microcracks, whilst, conform implant was exposed to microcrack of the cement. In conclusion, hybrid conformity showed a promising result that could compromise between conform and non-conform implant. However, further enhancement is required for hybrid implants when dealing with eccentric load (anterior and posterior).

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.