• 1 Jabatan Kesihatan Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur & Putrajaya, Jalan Cenderasari, Tasik Perdana, 50480 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 Centre for Clinical Trial, Institute for Clinical Research, National Institute of Health, Kompleks Institut Kesihatan Negara (NIH), No. 1, Jalan Setia Murni U13/52 Seksyen U13, Setia Alam, 40170 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Saudi Pharm J, 2021 Jul;29(7):670-676.
PMID: 34400860 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2021.04.028


Background: Insulin injection technique re-education and diabetes knowledge empowerment has led to improved glycemic control.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of pharmacist's monthly re-education on insulin injection technique (IT), lipohypertrophy, patients' perception on insulin therapy and its effect on glycaemic control.

Methods: This randomized controlled, multi-centered study was conducted among type 2 diabetics from 15 government health clinics. 160 diabetics with baseline HbA1C ≥ 8% and unsatisfactory IT technique were randomized into control or intervention group. Control group received standard pharmacist counselling during initiation and at 4th month. Intervention group received monthly counselling and IT re-education for 4 months. Assessment of diabetes, IT knowledge, adherence and perception towards diabetes were conducted using validated study tools Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS) and Medication Compliance Questionnaire (MCQ)).

Results: 139 patients completed the study; control group (69), intervention group (70). In control group, all outcomes shown improvement except for patient's perception. Mean HbA1C decreased 0.79% ± 0.24 (p = 0.001). In intervention group, all outcomes improved significantly. HbA1c reduces significantly by 1.19% ± 0.10 (p 

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.