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  1. Khan MB, Lee XY, Nisar H, Ng CA, Yeap KH, Malik AS
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2015;823:227-48.
    PMID: 25381111 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10984-8_13
    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.
  2. Lee XY, Selvadurai S, Cheah KY, Noh NB, Gan CB, Teng J, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Pharmacist-managed DMTAC has been set up in Malaysia government healthcare facilities to assist diabetic patients in improving their medication adherence level and glycaemic control. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of pharmacist involvement in a DMTAC programme on patient glycaemic control in 14 government health clinics in Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. This multi-centre retrospective study collected DMTAC patient demographics, medication regimens, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMMAS) data, and percentages of understanding towards their medications (based on information retrieved and reviewed from their DMTAC booklets). The data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 21.0. Fifty six patients were involved in this study. The mean HbA1c reduction (SD) of the pre- and post-intervention groups showed a statistically significant
    improvement of 1.0% (1.70) (p<0.001); decreasing from 10.7% (1.51) pre-intervention to 9.7% (1.75) post-intervention. The mean medication understanding score for the postintervention group was 97.6% (7.32), which was significantly higher than the preintervention group score of 92.2% (13.61) (p = 0.005). The mean MMMAS of the postintervention group was 7.4 (1.19), which was significantly higher than the pre-intervention group mean MMMAS of 6.5 (2.33) (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated an improvement in glycaemic control, medication understanding, and adherence level among T2DM patients who were enrolled in a pharmacist-managed DMTAC programme.
    Keywords: Diabetes, Diabetes Medication Adherence Therapy Clinic (DMTAC), Endocrine, Pharmacist, HbA1c, Medication adherence, Medication understanding
  3. Selvadurai S, Cheah KY, Ching MW, Kamaruddin H, Lee XY, Ngajidin RM, et al.
    Saudi Pharm J, 2021 Jul;29(7):670-676.
    PMID: 34400860 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2021.04.028
    Background: Insulin injection technique re-education and diabetes knowledge empowerment has led to improved glycemic control.

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of pharmacist's monthly re-education on insulin injection technique (IT), lipohypertrophy, patients' perception on insulin therapy and its effect on glycaemic control.

    Methods: This randomized controlled, multi-centered study was conducted among type 2 diabetics from 15 government health clinics. 160 diabetics with baseline HbA1C ≥ 8% and unsatisfactory IT technique were randomized into control or intervention group. Control group received standard pharmacist counselling during initiation and at 4th month. Intervention group received monthly counselling and IT re-education for 4 months. Assessment of diabetes, IT knowledge, adherence and perception towards diabetes were conducted using validated study tools Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS) and Medication Compliance Questionnaire (MCQ)).

    Results: 139 patients completed the study; control group (69), intervention group (70). In control group, all outcomes shown improvement except for patient's perception. Mean HbA1C decreased 0.79% ± 0.24 (p = 0.001). In intervention group, all outcomes improved significantly. HbA1c reduces significantly by 1.19% ± 0.10 (p 

  4. Wan Mahari WA, Nam WL, Sonne C, Peng W, Phang XY, Liew RK, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Sep;312:123572.
    PMID: 32470829 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123572
    Microwave vacuum pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was examined to produce engineered biochar for application as additive in agriculture application. The pyrolysis approach, performed at 750 W of microwave power, produced higher yield of porous biochar (28 wt%) with high surface area (270 cm2/g) compared to the yield obtained by conventional approach (<23 wt%). Addition of the porous biochar in mushroom substrate showed increased moisture content (99%) compared to the substrate without biochar (96%). The mushroom substrate added with biochar (150 g) was optimal in shortening formation, growth, and full colonization of the mycelium within one month. Using 2.5% of the biochar in mushroom substrate desirably maintained the optimum pH level (6.8-7) during the mycelium colonization period, leading to high mycelium growth (up to 91%) and mushroom yield (up to 280 g). The engineered biochar shows great potential as moisture retention and neutralizing agent in mushroom cultivation.
  5. Wan Mahari WA, Peng W, Nam WL, Yang H, Lee XY, Lee YK, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 12 05;400:123156.
    PMID: 32574879 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123156
    A review of valorization of oyster mushroom species and waste generated in the mushroom cultivation is presented, with a focus on the cultivation and valorization techniques, conditions, current research status and particularly the hazard mitigation and value-added recovery of the waste mushroom substrate (WMS) - an abundant waste in mushroom cultivation industry. Based on the studies reviewed, the production rate of the present mushroom industry is inadequate to meet market demands. There is a need for the development of new mushroom cultivation methods that can guarantee an increase in mushroom productivity and quality (nutritional and medicinal properties). This review shows that the cylindrical baglog cultivation method is more advantageous compared with the wood tray cultivation method to improve the mushroom yield and cost efficiency. Approximately 5 kg of potentially hazardous WMS (spreading diseases in mushroom farm) is generated for production of 1 kg of mushroom. This encourages various valorization of WMS for use in agricultural and energy conversion applications, mainly as biocompost, plant growing media, and bioenergy. The use of WMS as biofertilizer has shown desirable performance compared to conventional chemical fertilizer, whilst the use of WMS as energy feedstock could produce cleaner bioenergy sources compared to conventional fuels.
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