Affiliations 

  • 1 Micropollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Faculty of Civil Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • 3 School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China. parveen@ujs.edu.cn
  • 4 Medical Academy, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX, 77446, USA
  • 5 Institute for Integrated Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  • 6 Microelectronics and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Institute for Integrated Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. soon@uthm.edu.my
PMID: 34585345 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-16629-w

Abstract

Slaughterhouse and wet market wastes are pollutants that have been always neglected by society. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, more than three billion and nineteen million livestock were consumed worldwide in 2018, which reflects the vast amount and the broad spectrum of the biowastes generated. Slaughterhouse biowastes are a significant volume of biohazards that poses a high risk of contamination to the environment, an outbreak of diseases, and insecure food safety. This work comprehensively reviewed existing biowaste disposal practices and revealed the limitations of technological advancements to eradicate the threat of possible harmful infectious agents from these wastes. Policies, including strict supervision and uniform minimum hygienic regulations at all raw food processing factories, should therefore be tightened to ensure the protection of the food supply. The vast quantity of biowastes also offers a zero-waste potential for a circular economy, but the incorporation of biowaste recycling, including composting, anaerobic digestion, and thermal treatment, nevertheless remains challenging.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.