• 1 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutics Education and Research (SPER), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
  • 2 International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 53100, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi 110017, India
  • 4 Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
  • 5 Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
  • 6 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Gels, 2021 Nov 12;7(4).
PMID: 34842705 DOI: 10.3390/gels7040207


Hydrogels are known for their leading role in biomaterial systems involving pharmaceuticals that fascinate material scientists to work on the wide variety of biomedical applications. The physical and mechanical properties of hydrogels, along with their biodegradability and biocompatibility characteristics, have made them an attractive and flexible tool with various applications such as imaging, diagnosis and treatment. The water-cherishing nature of hydrogels and their capacity to swell-contingent upon a few ecological signals or the simple presence of water-is alluring for drug conveyance applications. Currently, there are several problems relating to drug delivery, to which hydrogel may provide a possible solution. Hence, it is pertinent to collate updates on hydrogels pertaining to biomedical applications. The primary objective of this review article is to garner information regarding classification, properties, methods of preparations, and of the polymers used with particular emphasis on injectable hydrogels. This review also covers the regulatory and other commerce specific information. Further, it enlists several patents and clinical trials of hydrogels with related indications and offers a consolidated resource for all facets associated with the biomedical hydrogels.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.